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Abstracts / Quaternary International 279-280 (2012) 9–120
done for the Mid-Holocene, and analyze model results to interpret how the dust cycle respond to the peculiar climate conditions of this period. Third, the climatic effect of dust will be studied. In addition, we plan to run a transient simulation for a sub-period of the Holocene. ABRUPT TRANSITION FROM WET PLIOCENE INTO DRY PLEISTOCENE PROVED BY FAUNAL AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE PALUSTRINE CARBONATES AND PEDOGENIC CALCRETES IN THE ÇAL-KARAHALLı BASIN OF SW ANATOLIA Mehmet Cihat Alçiçek. Pamukkale Univ. Dept. of Geology, Turkey E-mail address: [email protected]
be capable of accounting for the observed bedrock scour, various eddy bars of flood gravel in narrows zones, and the subaqueous gravel dunes. The model also suggests that these inferred events must have been relatively low in energy relative to the earlier outburst(s) that emplaced the flood gravels, giant current ripples, and scabland-like erosion surfaces. TWO-STEP HEATING EXPERIMENTS ON INDIVIDUAL SANIDINE CRYSTALS FROM ASH 4 OF THE WILSON CREEK FORMATION, MONO BASIN, CALIFORNIA, USA Guleed Ali. Columbia University and Lamont-Doherty Earth Obser, United States E-mail address: [email protected]
Plio-Pleistocene transition in the SW Anatolian basins presents dramatic changes of palaeoclimate and sedimentation interaction accompanied by regional tectonics. Terrestrial sedimentation in the Çal-Karahallı basin was commenced by the mid-Miocene onward in an extensional supradetachment setting. Pliocene of the basin is signified by palustrine deposits implying widespread humid conditions whereas overlain Pleistocene deposits are indicative of aridity with distinctive dark-red color and pedogenesis. Pleistocene of the basin represents alluvial-fan to fluvial depositional environments separated by a high-relief erosional unconformity from the underlying tilted Pliocene deposits of shallow to palustrinelake environment. The overlain subaerial red-bed unit is preserved as series of down-stepping terraces hanging on the sides of Büyük Menderes river valley. Paleosol and pedogenic calcretes were occurred in a single distinctive horizon resting to the top of flood-plain fines and restricted to the basin center forming a broad flat-lying plateau. The negative d18O ratios (-6.42 to -3.89 &) of the underlying palustrine carbonates indicate freshwater conditions which were sustained by a comparatively warm and humid climate during the late Pliocene. Increased d18O ratios (+0.14 to +2.96 &) of overlain red-bed deposits including pedogenic calcretes within the paleosol horizon show raised salinities, implying warm and semi-arid/arid conditions during the Pleistocene. The paleontological evidences of molluscan and ostracoda fauna within the palustrine deposits and mammal remains in the paleosol bearing subaerial deposits aid to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental settings. The molluscan and ostracoda assemblages (i.e. Bythinia, Dreissena and Cyprideis, Ilyocypris) evidence warm and humid conditions during Piacenzian, whereas the overlain red-bed deposits with paleosol horizon contains Equus sp. remains of Biharian age (MNQ19) supporting the semi-arid/arid conditions. 2-D HYDRAULIC MODELING OF THE LARGEST GLACIAL LAKE MISSOULA DRAINING(S)
Mono Basin, one of the closed basins in the US Great Basin, shows extensive evidence for Mono Lake level fluctuation through the last glacial cycle. Physical stratigraphic evidence suggests that the most significant lowstand-to-highstand oscillation of Wilson Creek Formation (WCF) time (67-14 ka) occurred between the deposition of WCF Ash 5 (23.1 0001 1.2 ka; Chen et al. 1996, Science) and WCF Ash 4. The goal of this study is to estimate the maximum depositional age of Ash 4 using the youngest population of 40Ar/39Ar measurements in order to constrain the timing of Mono Lake's rapid rise in lake level. The two largest sources of analytical uncertainty for measuring very young individual sanidines are the sample/ blank ratio and the non-36Ar interference. We measured 14 individual crystals from Ash 4, with 5 blanks before each measurement, and obtained a range of apparent ages of 62-34 ka, significantly older than its depositional age. The largest geological source of error is the assumption of atmospheric initial 40Ar/36Ar. In order to test this assumption and minimize the systematic bias of the assumption, we measured 23 individual Ash 4 sanidine crystals using a two step, A¼0.1 W and B¼7.0 W, heating experiment. Of these 23 crystals, six crystals yielded appropriately young ages and elevated initial ratios. These six crystals yielded an isochron age of 16.600010.7 ka, consistent with new 14C results from ostracod samples from just below Ash 4. These results suggest Mono Lake experienced a rapid onset of wet conditions and high lake levels by w17 ka, about 1000 years prior to the estimate from Lake Estancia, New Mexico (Allen and Anderson 2000, GSAB). Further measurements are required to resolve the timing of dry and wet oscillations during deglacial times in the Great Basin, but the 2-step heating approach is a promising and practical strategy for identifying excess radiogenic Ar in young sanidine samples. SEDIMENTARY RECORDS OF RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SOUTHEAST CASPIAN SEA
Petteri Alho. University of Turku, Department of Geograhy, Finland
Hamid Alizadeh Ketek Lahijani. Iranian National Institute for Oceanography, Islamic Republic of Iran
E-mail address: [email protected]fi
E-mail address: [email protected]
Glacial Lake Missoula (GLM) was source of Earth's largest megaflood. The outburst flooding from the GLM is commonly taken to be the primary source for the megaflooding that is documented in the late Pleistocene landforms and sediments of the Channeled Scabland (CS) and along the Columbia River valley. The original studies of GLM were based on geomorphological mapping of lake sediments and shorelines. Recently, studies have emphasized the hydraulic modeling of downstream flood routing and characteristics in the CS and adjacent areas. However, details of the lake-draining processes for GLM have received little scientific attention. Using full 2-D, depth-averaged hydraulic modeling, we calculated paleoflow conditions on the basin of GLM during its largest known late Pleistocene drainage events. Values are calculated for previously estimated discharges of 2.6; 13; 17x106 m3 s-1. Consistent with regional mapping by Smith (2006, QSR: 66, 311-322) and with the original interpretation by Pardee (1942, GSA Bull: 53, 1569-1600), the modeling shows that lake silt sequences in the basins and narrows areas of GLM must postdate the most highly energetic outburst events from the lake. This is because the flows generated in the lake by megaflood outflows are sufficiently energetic to erode any accumulated silt deposits. In contrast, the gravels underlying the silts include bouldersized clasts, large-scale cross stratification, and 70-100 m-high bars forms, all of which indicate very high-energy flood-flow conditions. The model shows that flow conditions during the largest megaflood outflows would
The southeast Caspian Sea with gently sloping coast, high sedimentation rate and transitional climate from temperate to arid, provides reliable place for preserving the past environmental events. Four cores with depth of 27m to 7m have taken in the south Caspian coast. The core sub-samples have been examined for radiocarbon dating and standard sedimentological analysis. The longest core covered the late Pleistocene and Holocene (17367 BP). Different cycles of rapid sea level rise and fall retrieved through sedimentary archives. Two possible extreme storms which associated with the Caspian highstands revealed in the late Holocene. The base and top of the longest core located at -55m and -25m bsl respectively. They are coincided with sea level fall, but the later correspond to 3m amplitude whilst the base supposed to be +50m. Terrigenous sediments dominated during lowstands while highstands correspond with more carbonates and biogenic materials. AFTERSHOCKS DISTRIBUTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND ITS APPLICATION ON THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE ON MARCH 11, 2011 Mostafa AllamehZadeh. International of Earthquake Engineering and Seismo, Islamic Republic of Iran E-mail address: [email protected]
Abstracts / Quaternary International 279-280 (2012) 9–120
In this paper an approach is presented to predict the concentration and the trend of aftershocks of Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 earthquake. The method is based on inputting first aftershocks to Kohonen artificial neural network. Artificial neural networks, which are inspired from human brain, consist of several artificial neurons which are connected with some weight vectors to each other. Artificial neural networks are able to classify a large volume of input data (i.e. earthquake catalogue) simultaneously and in parallel, and can recognize seismic patterns very well. Kohonen neural networks consist of several neurons that effect mutually on each other to display important statistical characteristics of the input space (i.e. first aftershocks). Combination of associative and competitive learning rules results in formation of Kohonen's self-organizing feature map (SOFM) algorithm. SOFM algorithm has converged; the feature map computed by the SOFM algorithm indicates the concentration and the trend of aftershocks precisely. RECONSTRUCTING HOLOCENE CLIMATE VARIABILITY USING ITRAX CORE SCANNING TECHNOLOGY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NAR CRATER LAKE Samantha Lee Allcock. University of Plymouth, United Kingdom E-mail address: [email protected]
A wide variety of climate information can be extracted from nonbiological components of lake sediments. Physical and chemical properties of lake sediment can be related to climate signals either through varve thickness measurements or through geochemical analysis. Traditional methods for extracting these data often rely upon time consuming and destructive techniques. New approaches now utilise ITRAX core scanning to provide rapid high-resolution records. Annually laminated sediment cores from Nar Crater Lake (Turkey) provide an opportunity to investigate the use of ITRAX technology and its applicability to Holocene climate variability studies. The approach combines high-resolution scanning (200mm steps over 21.6 m), multi-parameter varve counting and laminae observations to detect high and low frequency temporal changes. The project aims to use these data to reconstruct the nature, timing and amplitude of climate variability at the regional scale. Of particular importance are periods of stable and unstable climate, as such episodes are significant in understanding cultural as well as natural change events. Interpretation is based on geochemical measurements. According to these data, sediment composition is strongly controlled by Ca and Fe, which alternates seasonally. Occasional clastic events are characterized by peaks in Fe, Si, Ti, K, Zr, and Rb, and some periods contain high levels of minor elements Ta, Th, W. Elemental variation appears to reflect the changing nature of laminae formation from both in-lake and catchment sediment supply. The occurrence of temporal variability in the data is promising for palaeoclimate reconstruction, and can be validated against v18O and diatom data for the last 1.7 ka yrs (Jones et al, 2006; Woodbridge & Roberts, 2010). Preliminary results are presented, but discussions about their climatic meaning still remain open. Further analysis on thin sections and catchment samples are currently being conducted to refine interpretations. EFFECTS OF ASH FALLS ON VEGETATION – A PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY Judy Allen. Durham University, United Kingdom E-mail address: [email protected]
The 140kyr sedimentary record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, Italy, includes numerous layers of tephra. The palaeovegetation record from this site already has been shown to be sensitive to climatic changes. The dominant vegetation has ranged from various forest types, through a variety of open woodlands, to steppic assemblages dominated by herbaceous taxa. In this study we are investigating the magnitude and nature of the impacts of episodes of tephra deposition upon examples of this range of vegetation types, and the time taken for the vegetation to return to its previous state following tephra deposition. We are also exploring how these impacts, and the recovery time, are influenced by the thickness and chemistry of the tephra deposited. In order to investigate the effects of tephra deposition on the vegetation, we have performed high temporal resolution pollen analyses of the sediments immediately above
tephra layers. The chronology of this site, developed by Achim Brauer and colleagues at GeoforschungZentrum-Potsdam, Germany, is based on a combination of varve counting and, in sections of the core that are not varved, sedimentation rates. This high-resolution chronology, and especially the deposition of tephra layers within sequences of varved sediments, provides both accurate dating of the tephra layers and a basis for precise determinations of the chronology for the high temporal resolution pollen samples taken from sediments underlying and overlying tephras. Preliminary results indicate that recovery from minor ash falls is rapid, indeed the effects of some are undetectable in the pollen record. However, recovery from major events (tephra layers w30cm in thickness) may take from several decades to a few centuries. There are also some indications of differential sensitivities amongst taxa. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE VEGETATION CHANGES, NORTH OF 350003 N, FROM 60KYR BP TO THE PRESENT Judy Allen. Durham University, United Kingdom E-mail address: [email protected]
As part of an exploration of the causes of late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions, we simulated vegetation changes in the northern hemisphere, north of 350003 N, over the last 60kyr. We used the LPJ-GUESS Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM), developed by Martin Sykes and colleagues in Lund, Sweden, driving this using palaeoclimatic conditions derived from simulations made by Joy Singarayer and Paul Valdes in Bristol, UK. These simulations were made using the HadCM3 version of the Hadley Centre Unified Model, a fully coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation model. Vegetation was simulated for the 38,441 cells of a 0.50003 grid that included areas exposed by the lowered sea levels during glacial times. Simulations used 47 plant functional types (PFTs), including tree, shrub and herbaceous PFTs, and were made for 42 time slices spanning the period from the onset of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (60 kyr BP) to the pre-industrial era (0 kyr BP). Patterns of modelled vegetation change were, where possible, compared with evidence from independently dated pollen data available from databases in the public domain. In Eurasia, agreement between modelled and inferred vegetation was generally good, although there are some discrepancies. Comparisons with the North American pollen data are ongoing. These modelled vegetation changes fill in the many gaps in the patterns that can be derived from pollen data alone, and give new insights into the likely role of vegetation change in late-Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. VARIATION IN THE NORTHERN LIMIT OF SCOTS PINE IN FINNMARK DURING THE HOLOCENE Judy Allen. Durham University, United Kingdom E-mail address: [email protected]
The northernmost evergreen Boreal forests in Europe, found in Finnmark, are dominated by Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine). They lie to the south of a zone of woodlands dominated by Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii (Mountain Birch) that extends to the Arctic treeline. The ratio between the abundance of Pinus and Betula pollen in lake sediments in northern Finnmark today is related to their proximity to the Pinus forest limit (PFL). Past changes in this ratio thus provide evidence of variations in the proximity of the PFL. We have previously used this approach to provide evidence, from a site on Nordkinnhalvøya, of considerable variability in PFL position in central Finnmark on millennial time scales during the Holocene. Here we report results of pollen analyses of this and two further lakes, together forming a transect across northernmost Finnmark from Magerøya in the west to Varangerhalvøya in the east (250003 – 290003 E). All three are located north of 700003 N and of the present treeline, and each has a complete Holocene record. Variation in the Pinus:Betula ratio is seen at all three, although both the absolute value of the ratio and the magnitude of its fluctuations are markedly less at the eastern site. In order to explore the temporal relationships between fluctuations recorded at the three sites, detailed 14C dating was carried out. Using the dates obtained, age–depth models were constructed using the R package Bchron. Developed by John Haslett and Andrew Parnell, Dublin, this uses a Bayesian modelling

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Haiti: The Aftershocks of History false
By:Laurent Dubois
Published on 2012-01-03 by Metropolitan Books

Aftershocks PDF Free Download

A passionate and insightful account by a leading historian of Haiti that traces the sources of the country's devastating present back to its turbulent and traumatic history Even before the 2010 earthquake destroyed much of the country, Haiti was known as a benighted place of poverty and corruption. Maligned and misunderstood, the nation has long been blamed by many for its own wretchedness. But as acclaimed historian Laurent Dubois makes clear, Haiti's troubled present can only be understood by examining its complex past. The country's difficulties are inextricably rooted in its founding revolution—the only successful slave revolt in the history of the world; the hostility that this rebellion generated among the colonial powers surrounding the island nation; and the intense struggle within Haiti itself to define its newfound freedom and realize its promise. Dubois vividly depicts the isolation and impoverishment that followed the 1804 uprising. He details how the crushing indemnity imposed by the former French rulers initiated a devastating cycle of debt, while frequent interventions by the United States—including a twenty-year military occupation—further undermined Haiti's independence. At the same time, Dubois shows, the internal debates about what Haiti should do with its hard-won liberty alienated the nation's leaders from the broader population, setting the stage for enduring political conflict. Yet as Dubois demonstrates, the Haitian people have never given up on their struggle for true democracy, creating a powerful culture insistent on autonomy and equality for all. Revealing what lies behind the familiar moniker of the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere, this indispensable book illuminates the foundations on which a new Haiti might yet emerge.

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