Biographies Of The American Revolution PDF Free Download

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American Revolution

American Revolution 1765-1783

American revolutionary war/American war of Independence 1775 – 1783

Simulation or as a supplement to your own American Revolution unit. B efore you begin the simulation, be certain to read through the entire book so you can familiarize yourself with how a simulation works and prepare any materials that you may need. Feel free to supplement with photos, illustrations, video, music, and any other details that. This study presents the first broad coverage of Indian experiences in the American Revolution rather than Indian participation as allies or enemies of contending parties. Colin Calloway focuses on eight Indian communities as he explores how the Revolution often translated into war among Indians and their own struggles for independence. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 80,356,811 eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy it and don't forget to bookmark and share the love!

Patriots(Americans)+ French empire vs. English + Loyalists *Colonists = all the people living in British colonies of America The ‘Native Americans’ were called Red ‘Indians’

Colonial history of America

  • 1492 Columbus reached West Indies
  • The new world was colonized by European powers in 16th and 17th centuries
  • 13 English colonies established from 1607 to 1732.
  • Aim for setting up, developing and governing the colonies – Benefit of the mother country
  • Causes of American Revolution Can be broadly divided int

1.Socio-cultural (Enlightenment)

2. Political

3.Economic

Socio Cultural Causes

Lot of political and religious dissidents had settled in colonies (escaping persecution in Europe)

Liberal and progressive thinking –inspired by ideas of Enlightenment

Ideas like: Natural law and rights, Liberalism Property rights ,Republicanism

  • John Locke –power comes from people§ ‘Father of liberalism’
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Montesquieu
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Thomas Paine

Political Causes

  • Colonies had self appointed legislature and executive
  • Head of government- Governor appointed directly by British crown
  • No representation of colonies in§ Parliament in London

Economic Causes

  • Development of trade and commerce between 13 colonies made them inter dependent – made them think of themselves as one
  • The liberal ideas of society affected trade and economy too
  • Materialistic and individualism
  • Various Navigation acts passed by Britain to serve her mercantilist interest at the expense of Colonies : 1.1651 –Use only British ships for trade transport

2.1660 – Sugar, Tobacco, cotton & Indigo exports only to England

3.1663 – All trade to colonies only via England

  • Colonists got around these laws by smuggling
  • The enforcement of these laws was not§ very strong so it didn’t hurt the colonists interest too much
  • After 1763- their enforcement became strict

The Course of Events in Revolution

7 Years’ War (1754-63)

  1. Between Britain and France over territories in America
  2. Spread to 5 continents
  3. India – 3rd Carnatic war
  4. France defeated – Lost most of its territory
  5. Treaty of Paris signed
  6. After the war –
  7. French threat to colonies was gone
  8. Britain went into heavy debt
  9. They planned to tax the Colonists because the war would benefit them the most(land, resources, security)
  10. Colonists forbidden to settle in newly acquired land

King George III 1760-1820

The various unpopular ACTS

  • Sugar Act 1764 –Sugar to be exported§ only to England
  • Quartering Act 1764 – pay for English§ soldiers stationed in America, provide them lodging if required
  • Stamp Act 1765 All legal documents, newspapers, etc needed to be stamped (that is – give duty) Affected lawyers, journalists and educated people the most !! Protests began – No taxation without representation

Sons of Liberty

  • Formed in 1765
  • Organisation led by Samuel Adams .
  • Advocated use of violence, boycott of§ British goods, trade with Britain
  • Formed committees of correspondence – CRUCIAL LINKS
  • Declaratory Act 1766 Stamp act repealed ‘The king and British parliament have all the powers to make laws and tax the colonies in future’

Townshend Act 1767

Biographies of the american revolution pdf free download 64 bit
  • Charles Townshend – Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • Suspended New York’s legislature
  • Taxed essential goods – Tea, Paper, glass, Lead§ & Paint – all the ingredients to build a house
  • Power to British authorities to search any§ building or vessel

Boston Massacre 1770

5 protestors killed by British soldiers Publicised heavily by efforts of patriots like Paul Revere and Samuel Adams Turned public opinion against Crown rule/policies

Tea Act 1773

  • Lord North ,new PM of Britain removed all taxes except on TEA (mainly to benefit E.I.C.) •
  • Protestors refused to let ships laden with tea into harbours/ports
  • The Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson declared he will have ships unload in Boston harbour

Boston Tea Party (16 Dec 1773)

Group led by Samuel Adams boarded the ships of EIC and dumped tea worth 10000 pounds in the water

Intolerable Acts 1774

  • Public meetings in town halls banned
  • Boston port closed
  • Compensation demanded for the dumped tea
  • Quebec act – extended boundaries of§ British ruled Quebec
  • In response – the patriots started training§ militias for the looming fight with British

1st Continental Congress (Sept 1774)

  • Meeting of representatives of all 13§ colonies
  • First semblance of an ‘American§ government’
  • Decided to boycott British goods and§ increase use of domestically produced goods
  • Stop trade with Britain
  • Hostilities break out –The American Revolutionary war begins
  • By April 1775 , fighting started (Lexington§ and Concord)
  • The continental army was lead by§ General George Washington
  • They had support from and controlled§ countryside, while cities were bitterly contested.
  • King George III was petitioned in July by the Congress to stop oppressive laws and avoid full blown war, but he declared the congress as traitors.
  • Many Colonists-rich traders in cities benefitting from trade policies- still favoured British rule. They were called Loyalists
  • Common sense, a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine was widely circulated in 1775-76
  • It advocated for INDEPENDENCE in simple language with persuasive arguments and reasons
  • By early 1776, in all 13 colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing governments, closing courts and driving away British officials. They had elected legislatures and new constitutions were drawn up.
  • They declared that they were states now, not colonies.

2nd Continental Congress (1776)

  • On 4th of July,1776 – The Declaration of Independence was adopted at Philadelphia.
  • Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness’’
  • The 2nd Congress oversaw the war effort and the Patriots were soon supported by French empire, which nearly bankrupted itself supporting the Americans.
  • Spain and Netherlands also supported Americans

The war ended in October 1781 when General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown

Treaty of Paris 1783

  • The War ended officially with signing of this treaty
  • American independence recognized by Great Britain
  • Around 100 thousand soldiers died fighting,§ mostly due to disease.

Significance

  • Independence of USA – nationalism
  • A different type of state formed – mass§ based, not leader based – Republic
  • Anti-imperialist nation
  • A blueprint for uniting people for a cause
  • Ideas of enlightenment found real world application
  • “No American is inherently superior to any other American” (European Society => Birth – ClassSuperiority )
  • Inspired/led to other revolutions ,especially French and Latin American ones
  • British Empire changed its policies world overPitt’s India Act 1784, Cornwallis’ reforms in India

US constitution

  • 1st written constitution of world (1789)
  • Ideals of Liberty, rule of Law
  • Natural rights of men – Bill of Rights
  • Separation of powers- Montesquieu
  • System of checks and balances

Criticisms of the American Revolution

  • No deep change in society (like French Rev.)
  • No universal rights – only to men holding property (15-20% of total population)
  • No rights to slaves (30% of population) or women
  • Power taken from rich white English men§ and consolidated into rich white American men

War Free PDF

By Dr. Mahipal Singh Rathore

Facebook Id-> facebook.com/mahipalsinghrathore

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Biographies Of The American Revolution Pdf Free Download 64 Bit