American Revolution 1765-1783
American revolutionary war/American war of Independence 1775 – 1783
Simulation or as a supplement to your own American Revolution unit. B efore you begin the simulation, be certain to read through the entire book so you can familiarize yourself with how a simulation works and prepare any materials that you may need. Feel free to supplement with photos, illustrations, video, music, and any other details that. This study presents the first broad coverage of Indian experiences in the American Revolution rather than Indian participation as allies or enemies of contending parties. Colin Calloway focuses on eight Indian communities as he explores how the Revolution often translated into war among Indians and their own struggles for independence. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 80,356,811 eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy it and don't forget to bookmark and share the love!
Patriots(Americans)+ French empire vs. English + Loyalists *Colonists = all the people living in British colonies of America The ‘Native Americans’ were called Red ‘Indians’
Colonial history of America
- 1492 Columbus reached West Indies
- The new world was colonized by European powers in 16th and 17th centuries
- 13 English colonies established from 1607 to 1732.
- Aim for setting up, developing and governing the colonies – Benefit of the mother country
- Causes of American Revolution Can be broadly divided int
Socio Cultural Causes
Lot of political and religious dissidents had settled in colonies (escaping persecution in Europe)
Liberal and progressive thinking –inspired by ideas of Enlightenment
Ideas like: Natural law and rights, Liberalism Property rights ,Republicanism
- John Locke –power comes from people§ ‘Father of liberalism’
- Immanuel Kant
- Benjamin Franklin
- Thomas Paine
- Colonies had self appointed legislature and executive
- Head of government- Governor appointed directly by British crown
- No representation of colonies in§ Parliament in London
- Development of trade and commerce between 13 colonies made them inter dependent – made them think of themselves as one
- The liberal ideas of society affected trade and economy too
- Materialistic and individualism
- Various Navigation acts passed by Britain to serve her mercantilist interest at the expense of Colonies : 1.1651 –Use only British ships for trade transport
2.1660 – Sugar, Tobacco, cotton & Indigo exports only to England
3.1663 – All trade to colonies only via England
- Colonists got around these laws by smuggling
- The enforcement of these laws was not§ very strong so it didn’t hurt the colonists interest too much
- After 1763- their enforcement became strict
The Course of Events in Revolution
7 Years’ War (1754-63)
- Between Britain and France over territories in America
- Spread to 5 continents
- India – 3rd Carnatic war
- France defeated – Lost most of its territory
- Treaty of Paris signed
- After the war –
- French threat to colonies was gone
- Britain went into heavy debt
- They planned to tax the Colonists because the war would benefit them the most(land, resources, security)
- Colonists forbidden to settle in newly acquired land
King George III 1760-1820
The various unpopular ACTS
- Sugar Act 1764 –Sugar to be exported§ only to England
- Quartering Act 1764 – pay for English§ soldiers stationed in America, provide them lodging if required
- Stamp Act 1765 All legal documents, newspapers, etc needed to be stamped (that is – give duty) Affected lawyers, journalists and educated people the most !! Protests began – No taxation without representation
Sons of Liberty
- Formed in 1765
- Organisation led by Samuel Adams .
- Advocated use of violence, boycott of§ British goods, trade with Britain
- Formed committees of correspondence – CRUCIAL LINKS
- Declaratory Act 1766 Stamp act repealed ‘The king and British parliament have all the powers to make laws and tax the colonies in future’
Townshend Act 1767
- Charles Townshend – Chancellor of the Exchequer
- Suspended New York’s legislature
- Taxed essential goods – Tea, Paper, glass, Lead§ & Paint – all the ingredients to build a house
- Power to British authorities to search any§ building or vessel
Boston Massacre 1770
5 protestors killed by British soldiers Publicised heavily by efforts of patriots like Paul Revere and Samuel Adams Turned public opinion against Crown rule/policies
Tea Act 1773
- Lord North ,new PM of Britain removed all taxes except on TEA (mainly to benefit E.I.C.) •
- Protestors refused to let ships laden with tea into harbours/ports
- The Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson declared he will have ships unload in Boston harbour
Boston Tea Party (16 Dec 1773)
Group led by Samuel Adams boarded the ships of EIC and dumped tea worth 10000 pounds in the water
Intolerable Acts 1774
- Public meetings in town halls banned
- Boston port closed
- Compensation demanded for the dumped tea
- Quebec act – extended boundaries of§ British ruled Quebec
- In response – the patriots started training§ militias for the looming fight with British
1st Continental Congress (Sept 1774)
- Meeting of representatives of all 13§ colonies
- First semblance of an ‘American§ government’
- Decided to boycott British goods and§ increase use of domestically produced goods
- Stop trade with Britain
- Hostilities break out –The American Revolutionary war begins
- By April 1775 , fighting started (Lexington§ and Concord)
- The continental army was lead by§ General George Washington
- They had support from and controlled§ countryside, while cities were bitterly contested.
- King George III was petitioned in July by the Congress to stop oppressive laws and avoid full blown war, but he declared the congress as traitors.
- Many Colonists-rich traders in cities benefitting from trade policies- still favoured British rule. They were called Loyalists
- Common sense, a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine was widely circulated in 1775-76
- It advocated for INDEPENDENCE in simple language with persuasive arguments and reasons
- By early 1776, in all 13 colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing governments, closing courts and driving away British officials. They had elected legislatures and new constitutions were drawn up.
- They declared that they were states now, not colonies.
2nd Continental Congress (1776)
- On 4th of July,1776 – The Declaration of Independence was adopted at Philadelphia.
- Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness’’
- The 2nd Congress oversaw the war effort and the Patriots were soon supported by French empire, which nearly bankrupted itself supporting the Americans.
- Spain and Netherlands also supported Americans
The war ended in October 1781 when General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris 1783
- The War ended officially with signing of this treaty
- American independence recognized by Great Britain
- Around 100 thousand soldiers died fighting,§ mostly due to disease.
- Independence of USA – nationalism
- A different type of state formed – mass§ based, not leader based – Republic
- Anti-imperialist nation
- A blueprint for uniting people for a cause
- Ideas of enlightenment found real world application
- “No American is inherently superior to any other American” (European Society => Birth – ClassSuperiority )
- Inspired/led to other revolutions ,especially French and Latin American ones
- British Empire changed its policies world overPitt’s India Act 1784, Cornwallis’ reforms in India
- 1st written constitution of world (1789)
- Ideals of Liberty, rule of Law
- Natural rights of men – Bill of Rights
- Separation of powers- Montesquieu
- System of checks and balances
Criticisms of the American Revolution
- No deep change in society (like French Rev.)
- No universal rights – only to men holding property (15-20% of total population)
- No rights to slaves (30% of population) or women
- Power taken from rich white English men§ and consolidated into rich white American men
War Free PDF
By Dr. Mahipal Singh Rathore
Facebook Id-> facebook.com/mahipalsinghrathore
We apologize for this inconvenience. Your IP address has been automatically blocked from accessing the Project Gutenberg website, www.gutenberg.org. This is because the geoIP database shows your address is in the country of Germany.
Blocked at germany.shtml
Your IP address: 220.127.116.11
Referrer URL (if available): (none)
Browser: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1)
Date: Saturday, 31-Jul-2021 22:54:27 GMT
Why did this block occur?
A Court in Germany ordered that access to certain items in the Project Gutenberg collection are blocked from Germany. Project Gutenberg believes the Court has no jurisdiction over the matter, but until the issue is resolved, it will comply.
For more information about the German court case, and the reason for blocking all of Germany rather than single items, visit PGLAF's information page about the German lawsuit.
For more information about the legal advice Project Gutenberg has received concerning international issues, visit PGLAF's International Copyright Guidance for Project Gutenberg
This page in German
Automated translation (via Google Translate): translate.google.com
How can I get unblocked?
All IP addresses in Germany are blocked. This block will remain in place until legal guidance changes.
If your IP address lookup is incorrect
Use the Maxmind GeoIP demo to verify status of your IP address. Project Gutenberg updates its listing of IP addresses approximately monthly.
Occasionally, the website mis-applies a block from a previous visitor. Because blocks are applied momentarily, you should try again later to visit https://www.gutenberg.org if Maxmind shows your address as being outside of Germany.
If your IP address is shown by Maxmind to be outside of Germany and you were momentarily blocked, another issue is that some Web browsers erroneously cache the block. Trying a different Web browser might help. Or, clearing the history of your visits to the site.
I have other questions or need to report an error
Please email the diagnostic information above to (removing the spaces around the @) and we will try to help. The software we use sometimes flags 'false positives' -- that is, blocks that should not have occurred. Apologies if this happened, because human users outside of Germany who are making use of the eBooks or other site features should almost never be blocked.
Most recently updated: January 28, 2020.