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This groundbreaking book from sex educator and YouTube phenomenon Laci Green has everything you’ve ever wanted to know about sex, sexuality, pleasure, and your body. Let’s be honest: most of us think about sex A LOT, and we have plenty of unanswered questions: What’s the best way to talk to my partner about what I want? How do I figure out my sexuality? How do I have sex safely? What does an orgasm actually feel like? Laci Green—a sex educator and YouTuber who’s been hailed by Time magazine as the millennial Dr. Ruth—has built a platform of millions of followers by answering sex-related questions frankly, nonjudgmentally, and hilariously. Now Laci brings her signature style and voice to a comprehensive book about the multitude of issues and concerns that go along with sexuality: anatomy, consent, LGBTQ issues, STI and pregnancy prevention, sexual empowerment, healthy relationships, myth-busting, and more. Sex Plus is the first book of its kind: empowering, sex-positive, and cool. Comprehensive, honest, and vetted by a range of medical experts, this book will help you take control of your sex life. After all, knowledge is pleasure.

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Genre: Young Adult Nonfiction
Author: Laci Green
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Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
Dinitropyrenes induce gene mutations in multiple organs of the lambda/lacZ transgenic mouse (MutaTM Mouse) Arihiro Kohara a,b , Takayoshi Suzuki a,∗ , Masamitsu Honma a , Takashi Oomori c , Tomohiko Ohwada b,d , Makoto Hayashi a a
Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan b Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1, Tanabedouri, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan c Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-8-21 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8409, Japan d Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan Received 17 April 2001; received in revised form 28 December 2001; accepted 28 December 2001
Abstract Dinitropyrenes (DNPs), 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-dinitropyrene, are carcinogenic compounds found in diesel engine exhaust. DNPs are strongly mutagenic in the bacterial mutation assay (Ames test), mainly inducing frameshift type mutations. To assess mutagenicity of DNPs in vivo is important in evaluating their possible involvement in diesel exhaust-induced carcinogenesis in human. For this purpose, we used the lambda/lacZ transgenic mouse (MutaTM Mouse) to examine induction of mutations in multiple organs. A commercially available mixture of DNPs (1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-, and unidentified isomer (s) with a content of 20.2, 30.4, 35.2, and 14.2%, respectively) was injected intragastrically at 200 and 400 mg/kg once each week for 4 weeks. Seven days after the final treatment, liver, lung, colon, stomach, and bone marrow were collected for mutation analysis. The target transgene was recovered by the lambda packaging method and mutation of lacZ gene was analyzed by a positive selection with galE− E. coli. In order to determine the sequence alterations by DNPs, the mutagenicity of the lambda cII gene was also examined by the positive selection with hfl− E. coli. Since cII gene (294 bp) is much smaller than the lacZ (3024 bp), it facilitated the sequence analysis. Strongest increases in mutant frequencies (MFs) were observed in colon for both lacZ (7.5 × 10−5 to 43.3 × 10−5 ) and cII (2.7 × 10−5 to 22.5 × 10−5 ) gene. Three–four-fold increases were observed in stomach for both genes. A statistically significant increase in MFs was also evident in liver and lung for the lacZ gene, and in lung and bone marrow for the cII gene. The sequence alterations of the cII gene recovered from 37 mutants in the colon were compared with 50 mutants from untreated mice. Base substitution mutations predominated for both untreated (91%) and DNP-treated (84%) groups. The DNPs treatment increased the incidence of G:C to T:A transversion (2–43%) and decreased G:C to A:T transitions (70–22%). The G:C to T:A transversions, characteristic to DNPs treatment, is probably caused by the guanine–C8 adduct, which is known as a major DNA-adduct induced by DNPs, through an incorporation of adenine opposite the adduct (“A”-rule). The present study showed a relevant use of the cII gene as an additional target for mutagenesis in the MutaTM Mouse and revealed a mutagenic specificity of DNPs in vivo. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 1,3-Dinitropyrene; 1,6-Dinitropyrene; 1,8-Dinitropyrene; cII; MutaTM Mouse; Mutation spectrum; G:C to T:A transversion
1. Introduction ∗
Corresponding author. Tel.: +81-3-3700-9847; fax: +81-3-3700-2348. E-mail address: [email protected] (T. Suzuki).
Air pollution from diesel exhaust is an increasing concern as an environmental risk factor for
1383-5718/02/$ – see front matter © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 1 3 8 3 - 5 7 1 8 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 0 7 - 4
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
carcinogenesis. Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumors in experimental animals [1]. Of the compounds present in this complex mixture, various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene, and nitroarenes such as dinitropyrenes (DNPs) and nitrofluorantenes are potent mutagens and carcinogens. In the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test), DNPs show extremely strong mutagenicity without an exogenous metabolic activation system, in which the frameshift type mutations predominated [2–4]. DNPs are activated by the nitroreductase and the O-acetyltransferase of the bacteria to form DNA-adducts; strains deficient in these enzymes show reduced mutagenicity [5]. The ultimate reactive form of DNPs is presumably the nitropyrene-1-nitrenium ion which reacts with guanine to form a major DNA-adduct, 1-N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-1-amino-nitropyrene [6]. The DNP–DNA-adduct was identified both in vitro and in vivo [7–11]. Despite a strong mutagenicity in bacteria, little is known about mutagenicity in vivo. To evaluate the mutagenicity of DNPs in vivo, the micronucleus test was performed with the transgenic mouse mutation (TG) assay [12]. Since diesel exhaust contains a various mutagens/carcinogens, the question arises to what extent the DNPs contribute to the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Recently, Sato et al. reported that direct exposure of lacI transgenic (Big Blue® ) rats to diesel exhaust increased the mutation frequency in lung [13]. Comparing the mutation frequency and spectrum of DNPs with those of diesel exhaust, the possible involvement of DNPs in the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust is discussed.
2. Materials and methods 2.1. Chemicals DNPs, as a mixture of isomers, was purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, Japan). The isomer content was analyzed by the highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and four peaks were detected. Three of them were identified as 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-DNP by the co-chromatography with standard DNPs (Sigma). The fourth peak was revealed as DNP isomer (s) by the UV and mass spectrometry but the exact structure was not determined. The content of each isomer is 20.2% (1,3-DNP), 30.4% (1,6-DNP), 35.2% (1,8-DNP) and 14.2% (unidentified isomer (s)) as a peak area ratio in the HPLC analysis. DNPs were dissolved in olive oil for use. The chemical structures of these isomers are shown in Fig. 1. 2.2. Animals and treatments Six-week-old male MutaTM Mouse (ca. 25 g body weight) supplied by Covance Research Products (PA, USA) were acclimatized for 1 week before use and divided into five groups. Based on the LD50 , 200 or 400 mg/kg (40 and 80% LD50 , respectively) DNPs was injected intragastrically at a volume of 10 ml/kg once a week for 4 weeks. The vehicle control (olive oil) group was treated at the same time in the same manner. Six-week-old male ICR mice were supplied by Japan SLC (Shizuoka, Japan) and were used for the micronucleus assay after 1 week of acclimatization.
Fig. 1. Structures and contents of DNP isomers.
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
2.3. Micronucleus test Forty-eight hours after the first treatment with the MutaTM Mouse, 5 ␮l of peripheral blood was collected from the tail vein without anti-coagulant. The blood thus collected from each animal was placed on an acridine orange-coated glass slide, covered with a cover slip, and supravitally stained [14]. Type I, II, and III reticulocytes (RETs) with red fluorescent reticulum in the cytoplasm were scored. One thousand RETs were analyzed per animal under a fluorescence microscope within a few days after the slide preparation. The number of RETs with a micronucleus, which fluoresced greenish yellow, was recorded. For a further analysis, five male ICR mice (7-week-old) per group were treated intraperitoneally or intragastrically with 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg DNPs, and micronucleus induction was analyzed in a same manner using peripheral blood. In this experiment, 2000 RETs were analyzed per animal and mitomycin C (0.25 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. 2.4. Tissue collection Animals were killed 7 days after the last treatment by cervical dislocation. Liver, lung, stomach, bone marrow, and colon were removed, quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen, then stored in a deep freezer at −80 ◦ C until analysis. 2.5. DNA isolation and in vitro packaging The isolation of total genomic DNA from tissue samples was carried out using the standard phenol/chloroform method (Stratagene manual, 1994). Briefly, homogenized tissues were incubated with RNase and proteinase K, and genomic DNA was extracted using a phenol/chloroform mixture and chloroform. The DNA was precipitated with ethanol and dissolved in TE-4 buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl at pH 8.0 containing 4 mM EDTA). 2.6. In vitro packaging and mutant frequency (MF) determination The lacZ transgene, integrated into the lambda phage vector (lambda gt10), was recovered by in vitro packaging reactions. The DNA solution (10 ␮l)
adjusted to 1 mg DNA/ml was gently mixed with the Transpack packaging extract (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA) and incubated at 37 ◦ C for 1.5 h twice. The lacZ MF was determined by a positive selection with galE− E. coli according to the standard procedure (Corning Hazleton, October, 1996). The MF was also analyzed for the cII gene of lambda phage vector. A positive selection for cII mutants was performed according to Jakubczak et al. [15] with a slight modification. Briefly, the phage solution was adsorbed to 1 ml of E. coli G1225 (hf l− ) at room temperature for 20–30 min. For the titration, appropriately diluted phage solution was mixed with 200 ␮l of E. coli G1225. The phage-E. coli solution was mixed with 14 ml (for selection) and 6 ml (for titration) LB top agar (containing 10 mM MgSO4 ), and plated onto five and two petri dishes (9 cm), respectively, containing 10 ml bottom agar. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 25 ◦ C for the selection of cII mutants or at 37 ◦ C for the titer of total phages. Wild-type phage, recovered from MutaTM Mouse, has a cI− phenotype, which permits plaque formation with hf l− strain at 37 ◦ C but not at 25 ◦ C. 2.7. Sequencing of mutants The entire lambda cII region was amplified directly from mutant plaques by Taq DNA polymerase (Takara Shuzo, Tokyo Japan) with primers P1; 50006 -AAAAAGGGCATCAAATTAAACC-30006 , and P2; 50006 -CCGAAGTTGAGTATTTTTGCTGT-30006 . Amplification was done by the Minicycler PTC-150-25 (MJ Research Inc., MA, USA) with an initial heating step at 95 ◦ C for 5 min followed by 30 cycles of denaturing at 95 ◦ C for 20 s, annealing at 53 ◦ C for 30 s, extension at 72 ◦ C for 40 s, and 10 min incubation at 72 ◦ C. A 446 bp PCR product was purified with a microspin column (Amersham Pharmacia, Tokyo, Japan) and then used for a sequencing reaction with the Ampli Taq cycle sequencing kit (PE Biosystems, Tokyo, Japan). The sequencing reaction was done by Minicycler PTC-150-25 with 25 cycles of denaturing at 96 ◦ C for 10 s, annealing at 50 ◦ C for 5 s, and extension at 60 ◦ C for 4 min, with the primer P1. The reaction product was purified by ethanol precipitation and analyzed by the ABI PRISMTM 310 genetic analyzer (PE Biosystems, Tokyo, Japan).
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
2.8. Statistical analysis
3.2. MF of lacZ and cII genes
The difference in MFs between control and treated group was evaluated with the one-side test with the Poisson regression using quasi-likelihood. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.
DNA was isolated from various organs 7days after the last treatment with DNPs. The MFs of lacZ and cII genes were analyzed for liver, lung, colon, stomach, and bone marrow. At least 105 plaques were analyzed for both genes, which is generally obtained by one packaging reaction, although a few DNA samples with a low packaging efficiency did not reach this number. The individual data are presented in Table 3. Spontaneous MFs were in the range of 3.1 × 10−5 to 7.6 × 10−5 and 1.6 × 10−5 to 5.9 × 10−5 for the lacZ and the cII gene, respectively. The MF increase above spontaneous levels was most apparent in colon, with respectively six- and eight-fold increases lacZ and cII MF. Increase was also evident in the stomach for both genes although the increase was not statistically significant at the higher dose for the cII gene. A statistically significant increase was observed in liver and lung for the lacZ gene but was not evident for liver of the cII gene. A few-fold increase was observed in bone marrow for both genes but was statistically significant only for the cII gene.
3. Results 3.1. Micronucleus induction Results of the micronucleus test 48 h after the first intragastric administration of DNPs in the MutaTM Mouse are shown in Table 1. The mean incidence of the micronucleated RETs (MNRETs) after intragastric injection of 200 or 400 mg/kg DNPs was not different from the vehicle control. To confirm the negative response, male ICR mice were treated intraperitoneally or intragastrically with 200–800 mg/kg DNPs. As shown in Table 2, no increase of MNRETs by DNPs treatment was observed while micronucleus induction did occur with the positive control MMC.
Table 1 Micronucleus induction in peripheral blood of MutaTM mice treated with DNP Treatment Intragastric Olive oil DNP
MNRETs per 1000 RETs
10 ml/kg 200 mg/kg 400 mg/kg
1 2 1
2 3 4
Mean ± S.D. (%)
1 2 1
3 2 2
0.16 ± 0.09 0.20 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.13
1 1 1
Table 2 Micronucleus induction in peripheral blood of ICR mice treated with DNP Mean ± S.D. (%)
MNRETs per 2000 RETs
Olive oil
10 ml/kg (intraperitoneal)
0.25 ± 0.06
200 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) 800 mg/kg (intraperitoneal)
4 2 4
5 1 4
6 3 4
6 7 5
0.26 ± 0.04 0.16 ± 0.11 0.21 ± 0.02
Olive oil
10 ml/kg (intragastric)
0.21 ± 0.12
200 mg/kg (intragastric) 400 mg/kg (intragastric) 800 mg/kg (intragastric)
3 3 5
10 3 4
5 3 4
6 5 11
0.30 ± 0.13 0.18 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.15
MMC (positive control)
0.25 mg/kg (intraperitoneal)
0.59 ± 0.16∗

P < 0.05 in Fisher’s exact test.
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
Table 4 The cII mutations recovered from colon Mutation type
Altered site
Amino acid change
No. of mutanta
Base substitution Transition G:C to A:T
25 34 40 64 89 103 113 146 193 196 212 214
aac Gag gct cta Cga atc atc Gag agt atc Gca atg aca gCg gaa ggc Gtt gat aag tCg cag att cCa aag gac Gac gac gac Gac atg ttg gCg cga gcg Cga caa
Glu to Lys Arg to Stop Glu to Lys Ala to Thr Ala to Val Val to Ile Ser to Leu Pro to Leu Asp to Asn Asp to Asn Ala to Val Arg to Stop
3 3 2 3 1 1 3 (2) 1 1 2 3 1
34 40 64 141 196 212 214
cta Cga atc atc Gag agt atc Gca atg gca tgG att gac Gac atg ttg gCg cga gcg Cga caa
Arg to Stop Glu to Lys Ala to Thr Trp to Stop Asp to Asn Ala to Val Arg to Stop
1 1 1 1 1 1 2
att cTc acc
Leu to Pro
aag Tcg cag
Ser to Thr
cga aTc gag
Ile to Asn
3 (2)
gat aAg tcg
Lys to Thr
cca aAg ttc
Lys to Thr
42 79 141 167
atc gaG agt act Gag aag gca tgG att ctt gCt gtt
Glu to Asp Glu to Stop Trp to Cys Ala to Asp
1 1 1 1
20 35 89 94 100 122 132 134 159 167 179 210 212 224
aaa cGc aac cta cGa atc aca gCg gaa gaa Gct gtg gtg Ggc gtt atc aGc agg tgg aaG agg aag aGg gac tca atG ctg ctt gCt gtt gaa tGg ggg cga ttG gcg ttg gCg cga gtt gCt gcg
Arg to Leu Arg to Leu Ala to Glu Ala to Ser Gly to Cys Ser to Ile Lys to Asn Arg to Met Met to Ile Ala to Asp Trp to Leu Leu to Phe Ala to Glu Ala to Asp
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1
A:T to G:C Transversion A:T to T:A
DNPs A:T to C:G
G:C to T:A
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
Table 4 (Continued) Mutation type G:C to C:G
Altered site
Amino acid change
No. of mutanta
gag aaG aca
Lys to Asn
44 74 179
ctt gGa act ctt gGa act gaa tGg ggg
Gly to Ala Gly to Ala Trp to Ser
1 1 1
179–184 260–261
gaa tgg ggg gtc gtt gca acc gag
1 1
gaa tgg ggg gtc gtt
7 (3)
−1 Frameshift
+1 Frameshift Control
gaa tgg ggg gtc gtt
gaa tgg ggg gtc gtt
3 (2)
gtt GAC GAC GAC atg (−GAC)
Deletion a
Numbers in parenthesis indicate independent mutations after subtraction of mutations recovered from the identical mouse.
3.3. The cII mutation spectrum Thirty-seven DNPs-induced mutants in the colon were sequenced, together with 33 control mutants. Table 4 lists the types of mutations detected, and the mutation spectra are summarized in Table 5. Table 5 Summary of cII mutations in the colon of control and DNP-treated MutaTM Mouse Mutation class
Colon Control (%)
DNP (%)
Base substitution Transitions G:C to A:T at CpG sites A:T to G:C
30 23 23 22 0
(91) (70) (70) (67) (0)
31 9 8 1 1
(84) (24) (22) (3) (3)
Transversions A:T to T:A A:T to C:G G:C to T:A G:C to C:G
7 1 1 4 1
(21) (3) (3) (12) (3)
22 2 1 16 3
(59) (5) (3) (43) (8)
−1 Frameshift
2 (6)
3 (8)
+1 Frameshift
1 (3)
2 (5)
0 (0)
1 (3)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
33 (100)
37 (100)
MF (×10−6 )
Spontaneous mutations consisted mainly of base substitutions (30/33). Among them, G:C to A:T transitions (23/30) predominated and almost all of them (22/23) occurred at CpG sites. DNPs-induced mutations also consisted mainly of base substitutions (31/37). Comparing to the control, G:C to A:T transitions decreased (24% versus 70%) and G:C to T:A transversions increased (43% versus 12%). No change was observed for incidences of frameshift mutations. The locations of the mutations, obtained from colon of control and DNP-treated mouse, were shown in Fig. 2.
4. Discussion There have been increasing concerns on the carcinogenic risk of diesel exhaust. DNPs are important mutagenic components in diesel exhaust, and were proved to be carcinogenic in rodents [16]. A strong mutagenicity of DNPs in bacteria suggested that they may also be mutagenic in vivo. Therefore, we have investigated the in vivo mutagenicity of DNPs by the TG assay, which is a powerful tool for studying chemical mutagenesis in vivo. Because DNPs exist in the diesel exhaust as a mixture, we used a commercially available mixture to test whether any of the isomers possess mutagenic potency in the transgenic system. The mutagenicity of DNPs in vivo is clearly demonstrated by this assay using the lacZ and cII gene
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
Fig. 2. The cII gene mutations in the colon of control and DNP-treated MutaTM Mice. The sequence from top to bottom represents the amplified lambda cII region. Mutations shown above the sequence were detected in control mice, whereas those below were detected in DNP-treated mice.
as targets, although the micronucleus tests gave negative results. These results demonstrated that the TG assay is important as a complementary or alternative in vivo test to the micronucleus test. Analysis of the lacZ and cII gene mutations showed organ-specific MF among liver, lung, colon, stomach, and bone marrow. The strongest MF increase was observed in colon followed by stomach and lung > liver > bone marrow although such ordering is not absolute, and is dependent on maximal mutation expression. Accordingly, this relative order might be affected if tissue-specific sub-optimal expression conditions existed in this study. The weakest response, which occurred in bone marrow, might correlate with the negative result in the micronucleus assay. Because DNPs were administered by intragastric injections, organs of contact
(stomach and colon) are likely to be the main target organs for mutagenesis. The carcinogenicity of DNPs has previously been observed at the site of administration, lung by intrapulmonary instillation [17,18], sarcoma by subcutaneous injection [19,20], and soft tissues of peritoneal cavity by intraperitoneal injection [11]. In addition, it was reported that formation of DNA-adducts in the lung was 10-fold higher than in the liver after intrapulmonary instillation of 1,6-DNP [7]. The highest MF induction in colon, as was also the case for other mutagens [21–25], suggested that colon is the most sensitive organ for mutagenesis in the TG assay, probably because of its high proliferation rate. It should also be considered that enteric bacteria might have some role in mutagenic activation of DNPs in colon by a nitro-reduction.
A. Kohara et al. / Mutation Research 515 (2002) 73–83
The mutagenic response of the cII gene is almost similar to that of the lacZ gene, although the MF is generally lower in cII. There were variations in the MFs among animals and between lacZ and cII gene in some case, that might be derived from clonal (jackpot) mutations. The possibility of clonal mutations can be checked by sequencing the mutants. The cII gene has a great advantage for sequence analysis because the target size is about (1/10) of the lacZ gene. The sequence analysis was performed on the mutants recovered from colon where the highest MF was obtained. As has been reported with the lacZ and lacI genes, the most common spontaneous mutation was G:C to A:T transitions, most of which occurred at CpG sites. The site of mutations was distributed widely among cII genes. The DNPs mainly induced base substitution mutations that contrast to the results in the Salmonella reversion (Ames) assay, in which DNPs induce mainly frameshift mutations [26]. Similar differences between bacterial and transgenic systems were reported for heterocyclic amines [27,28]. It is rare that a chemical induces predominantly frameshift-type mutations in the TG assays. A possible explanation for the difference is a repair deficiency (uvrB− ) or the target-sequence context (GC repeats) of bacterial tester strains. The main changes in the mutation spectrum after DNPs treatment were the reduction of G:C to A:T transitions and the induction of the G:C to T:A transversions. The latter correlates with the fact that 1,6- or 1,8-DNPs-induced lung tumors contained G to T transversions in codon 12 of the K-ras gene [29,30] and the major type of base substitution mutation in bacteria [34]. The major DNA-adduct formed by 1,6-DNP was reported as 1-N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-1-amino-6-nitropyrene [6]. As was also observed with heterocyclic amines [31], guanine–C8 adducts induce G:C to T:A transversion mutations probably by inserting “A” opposite to the uninformative or apurinic bases [32]. There were no apparent hot spots for the DNPs-induced mutations. Recently, Sato et al. [13] reported that exposure to diesel exhaust increased mutation frequency in lung of Big Blue® rat. This report is important for providing evidence that diesel exhaust, as a mixture, acts as a mutagen in vivo. They reported that the G:C to T:A transversion of the lacI gene at the site 211 was a hot spot. The surrounding sequence of this site (gattGgcg) is identical to the cII sequence at 206–213 but
only one mutation was recovered at the corresponding guanine. In addition, the major mutations induced by diesel exhaust in the lacI gene were A:T to G:C and G:C to A:T transitions. Therefore, there was no direct evidence on a contribution of DNPs to the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust although it was reported that DNPs contribute 43% of the total direct mutagenicity of diesel particulate extracts in the Ames test [33]. The different routes of exposure (inhalation or intragastric administration) might gave different mutation spectra between Sato et al. [13] and this study. In conclusion, the TG assay demonstrated that DNPs, as a mixture, are mutagenic in multiple organs, while micronucleus induction was not observed. Sequence analyses of DNPs-induced cII mutants revealed a molecular signature of DNPs-induced mutation as G:C to T:A transversions.
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