- SELF MASTERY THROUGH CONSCIOUS AUTOSUGGESTION Suggestion, or rather Autosuggestion, is quite a new subject,and yet at the same time it is as old as the world. It is new in the sense that until now it has been wrongly- studied and in consequence wrongly understood; it is old because it dates from the appearance of man on the earth. In fact autosuggestion is an instrument that we possess at.
- Once you make one of those and see how it fits, I am happy to advise you on how to best scale up that pattern based on her build and what does and doesn't work for you/her. However, for a bigger kid with bigger wetting, something like a fitted style diaper might work better for higher absorbency options.
- The holistic view of data that you get for past sprints using capacity planning does help in taking decisions and continuous improvement. In order to see the real benefit of this template, you are expected to use the template for at least 3-4 sprints. Further, as you move, you see more benefits.
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The University of Georgia
Independent Chapter Review
As an educator I find it interesting to teach and learn. I like to ask questions as a roadmap to my teaching experience. You did a fine job with the introduction for that. Yet, I would want a little more information in the introduction. This site is a wonderful Cliff Notes to Bloom’s Taxonomy. The reference page is most helpful. However, I would also add a booklist for your reader. You only had one picture of the theory. I would challenge you to include more pictures and graphs for your reader. It just make things fun for us to see and feel. What about links to other sites so we can enhance our education in the learning process.
Linda Dunegan, Ph.D. (c)
CB Healing Institute, http://cbhealinginstitute.com/
One of the basic questions facing educators has always been 'Where do we begin in seeking to improve human thinking?' (Houghton, 2004). Fortunately we do not have to begin from scratch in searching for answers to this complicated question. The Communities Resolving Our Problems (C.R.O.P.) recommends, 'One place to begin is in defining the nature of thinking. Before we can make it better, we need to know more of what it is' (Houghton, 2004).
Benjamin S. Bloom extensively contemplated the nature of thinking, eventually authoring or co-authoring 18 books. According to a biography of Bloom, written by former student Elliot W. Eisner, 'It was clear that he was in love with the process of finding out, and finding out is what I think he did best. One of Bloom's great talents was having a nose for what is significant' (2002).
Although it received little attention when first published, Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22 languages and is one of the most widely applied and most often cited references in education. (Anderson & Sosniak, 1994, preface), (Houghton, 2004), ( Krathwohl, 2002), ( oz-TeacherNet, 2001). As of this writing, three other chapters in this ebook make reference to Bloom's Taxonomy, yet another testament to its relevance.
In 1780, Abigail Adams stated, 'Learning is not attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence' ( quotationspage.com, 2005). Learning, teaching, identifying educational goals, and thinking are all complicated concepts interwoven in an intricate web. Bloom was arduous, diligent, and patient while seeking to demystify these concepts and untangle this web. He made 'the improvement of student learning' (Bloom 1971, Preface) the central focus of his life's work.
Discussions during the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association led Bloom to spearhead a group of educators who eventually undertook the ambitious task of classifying educational goals and objectives. Their intent was to develop a method of classification for thinking behaviors that were believed to be important in the processes of learning. Eventually, this framework became a taxonomy of three domains:
- The cognitive - knowledge based domain, consisting of six levels
- The affective - attitudinal based domain, consisting of five levels, and
- The psychomotor - skills based domain, consisting of six levels.
In 1956, eight years after the group first began, work on the cognitive domain was completed and a handbook commonly referred to as 'Bloom's Taxonomy' was published. This chapter focuses its attention on the cognitive domain.
While Bloom pushed for the use of the term 'taxonomy,' others in the group resisted because of the unfamiliarity of the term within educational circles. Eventually Bloom prevailed, forever linking his name and the term. The small volume intended for university examiners 'has been transformed into a basic reference for all educators worldwide. Unexpectedly, it has been used by curriculum planners, administrators, researchers, and classroom teachers at all levels of education' (Anderson & Sosniak, 1994, p. 1). While it should be noted that other educational taxonomies and hierarchical systems have been developed, it is Bloom's Taxonomy which remains, even after nearly fifty years, the de facto standard.
What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
Understanding that 'taxonomy' and 'classification' are synonymous helps dispel uneasiness with the term. Bloom's Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Throughout the years, the levels have often been depicted as a stairway, leading many teachers to encourage their students to 'climb to a higher (level of) thought.' The lowest three levels are: knowledge, comprehension, and application. The highest three levels are: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. 'The taxonomy is hierarchical; [in that] each level is subsumed by the higher levels. In other words, a student functioning at the 'application' level has also mastered the material at the 'knowledge' and 'comprehension' levels.' (UW Teaching Academy, 2003). One can easily see how this arrangement led to natural divisions of lower and higher level thinking.
Clearly, Bloom's Taxonomy has stood the test of time. Due to its long history and popularity, it has been condensed, expanded, and reinterpreted in a variety of ways. Research findings have led to the discovery of a veritable smorgasbord of interpretations and applications falling on a continuum ranging from tight overviews to expanded explanations. Nonetheless, one recent revision (designed by one of the co-editors of the original taxonomy along with a former Bloom student) merits particular attention.
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT)
During the 1990's, a former student of Bloom's, Lorin Anderson, led a new assembly which met for the purpose of updating the taxonomy, hoping to add relevance for 21st century students and teachers. This time 'representatives of three groups [were present]: cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists and instructional researchers, and testing and assessment specialists' (Anderson, & Krathwohl, 2001, p. xxviii). Like the original group, they were also arduous and diligent in their pursuit of learning, spending six years to finalize their work. Published in 2001, the revision includes several seemingly minor yet actually quite significant changes. Several excellent sources are available which detail the revisions and reasons for the changes. A more concise summary appears here. The changes occur in three broad categories: terminology, structure, and emphasis.
Changes in terminology between the two versions are perhaps the most obvious differences and can also cause the most confusion. Basically, Bloom's six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. Additionally, the lowest level of the original, knowledge was renamed and became remembering. Finally, comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating. In an effort to minimize the confusion, comparison images appear below.
The new terms are defined as:
- Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory.
- Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
- Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing.
- Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.
- Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing.
- Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing.
(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68)
Structural changes seem dramatic at first, yet are quite logical when closely examined. Bloom's original cognitive taxonomy was a one-dimensional form. With the addition of products, the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy takes the form of a two-dimensional table. One of the dimensions identifies The Knowledge Dimension (or the kind of knowledge to be learned) while the second identifies The Cognitive Process Dimension (or the process used to learn). As represented on the grid below, the intersection of the knowledge and cognitive process categories form twenty-four separate cells as represented on the 'Taxonomy Table' below.
The Knowledge Dimension on the left side is composed of four levels that are defined as Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Meta-Cognitive. The Cognitive Process Dimension across the top of the grid consists of six levels that are defined as Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create. Each level of both dimensions of the table is subdivided.
Each of the four Knowledge Dimension levels is subdivided into either three or four categories (e.g. Factual is divided into Factual, Knowledge of Terminology, and Knowledge of Specific Details and Elements). The Cognitive Process Dimension levels are also subdivided with the number of sectors in each level ranging from a low of three to a high of eight categories. For example, Remember is subdivided into the three categories of Remember, Recognizing, and Recalling while the Understanding level is divided into eight separate categories. The resulting grid, containing 19 subcategories is most helpful to teachers in both writing objectives and aligning standards with curricular. The 'Why' and 'How' sections of this chapter further discuss use of the Taxonomy Table as well as provide specific examples of applications.
|The Knowledge Dimension||The Cognitive Process Dimension|
|Meta-Cognitive Knowledge||Appropriate Use||Execute||Construct||Achieve||Action||Actualize|
Copyright (c) 2005 Extended Campus -- Oregon State University http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/#table Designer/Developer - Dianna Fisher
Caption: As one can see from the Oregon State chart above, the intersection of the six Cognitive Process defined dimensions (Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create) with the four Knowledge Dimensions (defined as Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Meta-Cognitive) forms a grid with twenty-four separate cells as represented. Each of the cells contains a hyperlinked verb that launches a pop-up window containing definitions and examples.
Changes in Emphasis
Emphasis is the third and final category of changes. As noted earlier, Bloom himself recognized that the taxonomy was being 'unexpectedly' used by countless groups never considered an audience for the original publication. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience. Emphasis is placed upon its use as a 'more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment' (oz-TeacherNet, 2001).
Why use Bloom's Taxonomy?
As history has shown, this well known, widely applied scheme filled a void and provided educators with one of the first systematic classifications of the processes of thinking and learning. The cumulative hierarchical framework consisting of six categories each requiring achievement of the prior skill or ability before the next, more complex, one, remains easy to understand. Out of necessity, teachers must measure their students' ability. Accurately doing so requires a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom's Taxonomy provided the measurement tool for thinking.
With the dramatic changes in society over the last five decades, the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy provides an even more powerful tool to fit today's teachers' needs. The structure of the Revised Taxonomy Table matrix 'provides a clear, concise visual representation' (Krathwohl, 2002) of the alignment between standards and educational goals, objectives, products, and activities.
Today's teachers must make tough decisions about how to spend their classroom time. Clear alignment of educational objectives with local, state, and national standards is a necessity. Like pieces of a huge puzzle, everything must fit properly. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Table clarifies the fit of each lesson plan's purpose, 'essential question,' goal or objective. The twenty-four-cell grid from Oregon State University that is shown above can easily be used in conjunction with Printable Taxonomy Table Examplesto clearly define the 'Essential Question' or lesson objective.
How can Bloom's Taxonomy Be Used?
A search of the World Wide Web will yield clear evidence that Bloom's Taxonomy has been applied to a variety of situations. Current results include a broad spectrum of applications represented by articles and websites describing everything from corrosion training to medical preparation. In almost all circumstances when an instructor desires to move a group of students through a learning process utilizing an organized framework, Bloom's Taxonomy can prove helpful. Yet the educational setting (K-graduate) remains the most often used application. A brief explanation of one example is described below.
The educational journal Theory into Practice published an entire issue on the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. Included is an article entitled, 'Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team-Taught, Integrated, Thematic Units' (Ferguson, 2002).
The writer describes the use of the revised Bloom's Taxonomy to plan and deliver an integrated English and history course entitled 'Western Culture.' The taxonomy provided the team-teachers with a common language with which to translate and discuss state standards from two different subject areas. Moreover, it helped them to understand how their subjects overlapped and how they could develop conceptual and procedural knowledge concurrently. Furthermore, the taxonomy table in the revised taxonomy provided the history and English teachers with a new outlook on assessment and enabled them to create assignments and projects that required students to operate at more complex levels of thinking (Abstract, Ferguson, 2002).
Additionally, The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology website contains an excellent and extensive description of the use of the Revised Taxonomy Table in writing, examining and revising objectives to insure the alignment of the objectives with both the standards and the assessments. Three charts can be found on the site one of which compares 'Unclear Objectives' with 'Revised Objectives'.
Bloom's group initially met hoping to reduce the duplication of effort by faculty at various universities. In the beginning, the scope of their purpose was limited to facilitating the exchange of test items measuring the same educational objectives. Intending the Taxonomy 'as a method of classifying educational objectives, educational experiences, learning processes, and evaluation questions and problems' (Paul, 1985 p. 39), numerous examples of test items (mostly multiple choice) were included. This led to a natural linkage of specific verbs and products with each level of the taxonomy. Thus, when designing effective lesson plans, teachers often look to Bloom's Taxonomy for guidance.
Likewise the Revised Taxonomy includes specific verb and product linkage with each of the levels of the Cognitive Process Dimension. However, due to its 19 subcategories and two-dimensional organization, there is more clarity and less confusion about the fit of a specific verb or product to a given level. Thus the Revised Taxonomy offers teachers an even more powerful tool to help design their lesson plans.
As touched upon earlier, through the years, Bloom's Taxonomy has given rise to educational concepts including terms such as high and low level thinking. It has also been closely linked with multiple intelligences (Noble, 2004) problem solving skills, creative and critical thinking, and more recently, technology integration. For example, currently, the State of Georgia K-12 Technology Plan has included in its website an excellent graphic depicting technology alignment using Bloom's Taxonomy with learning through the two axes of instructional approach and authenticity.
Using the Revised Taxonomy in an adaptation from the Omaha Public Schools Teacher's Corner, a lesson objective based upon the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears is presented for each of the six levels of the Cognitive Process as shown on the Revised Taxonomy Table.
Remember: Describe where Goldilocks lived.
Understand: Summarize what the Goldilocks story was about.
Apply: Construct a theory as to why Goldilocks went into the house.
Analyze: Differentiate between how Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event.
Evaluate: Assess whether or not you think this really happened to Goldilocks.
Create: Compose a song, skit, poem, or rap to convey the Goldilocks story in a new form.
Although this is a very simple example of the application of Bloom's taxonomy the author is hopeful that it will demonstrate both the ease and the usefulness of the Revised Taxonomy Table.
Countless people know, love and are comfortable with the original Bloom's Taxonomy and are understandably hesitant to change. After all, change is difficult for most people. The original Bloom's Taxonomy was and is a superb tool for educators. Yet, even 'the original group always considered the [Taxonomy] framework a work in progress, neither finished nor final' (Anderson & Krathwohl 2001 p. xxvii). The new century has brought us the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy which really is new and improved. Try it out; this author thinks you will like it better than cake.
Below is an animation illustrating how Bloom's Bakery has put all the puzzle pieces together to make one tasty, hot out of the oven, (recently revised), taxonomy treat.
This is supposed to be a flash animation. You'll need the flash plugin and a browser that supports it to view it.
Click Here to Download PowerPoint Quiz Caption: Test your taxonomy knowledge by taking this Bloom's PowerPoint quiz! You will be asked to recall information from the chapter, apply your knowledge of the different levels of Bloom's, as well as identify the taxonomic levels of various classroom activities. Good luck! This PowerPoint quiz was created by Nancy Andrews, Amy McElveen, and Emily Hodge (2005).
For help on writing objectives, check out these resourses:
Bloom - Biography
Written by Katie Davis, Yingnan Chen, Mike Cambell, Spring 2010
Benjamin Samuel Bloom, one of the greatest minds to influence the field of education, was born on February 21, 1913 in Lansford, Pennsylvania. As a young man, he was already an avid reader and curious researcher. Bloom received both a bachelor’s and master’s degree from Pennsylvania State University in 1935. He went on to earn a doctorate’s degree from the University of Chicago in 1942, where he acted as first a staff member of the Board of Examinations (1940-43), then a University Examiner (1943-59), as well as an instructor in the Department of Education, beginning in 1944. In 1970, Bloom was honored with becoming a Charles H. Swift Distinguished Professor at the University of Chicago.
Bloom’s most recognized and highly regarded initial work spawned from his collaboration with his mentor and fellow examiner Ralph W. Tyler and came to be known as Bloom’s Taxonomy. These ideas are highlighted in his third publication, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I, The Cognitive Domain. He later wrote a second handbook for the taxonomy in 1964, which focuses on the affective domain. Bloom’s research in early childhood education, published in his 1964 Stability and Change in Human Characteristics sparked widespread interest in children and learning and eventually and directly led to the formation of the Head Start program in America. In all, Bloom wrote or collaborated on eighteen publications from 1948-1993.
Aside from his scholarly contributions to the field of education, Benjamin Bloom was an international activist and educational consultant. In 1957, he traveled to India to conduct workshops on evaluation, which led to great changes in the Indian educational system. He helped create the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, the IEA, and organized the International Seminar for Advanced Training in Curriculum Development. He developed the Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis (MESA) program at eh University of Chicago. He was chairman of both the research and development committees of the College Entrance Examination Board and the president of the American Educational Research Association.
Benjamin Bloom died in his home in Chicago on September 13, 1999. In addition to his many accomplishments, he was a dedicated family man and was survived by his wife and two sons.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York : Longman.
Anderson , L.W., & Sosniak, L.A. (Eds.). (1994). Bloom's taxonomy: a forty-year retrospective. Ninety-third yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Pt.2 . , Chicago , IL . , University of Chicago Press.
Bloom, Benjamin S. & David R. Krathwohl. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York , Longmans.
Cruz, E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Educational Technology: Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. Retrieved March 19, 2005 from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/bloomrev/
Eisner, E.W. (2002) Benjamin Bloom 1913-99, Retrieved March 31, 2005 from International Bureau of Education: UNESCO, http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/Publications/Thinkers/ThinkersPdf/bloome.pdf
Ferguson , C. (2002). Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team- Taught, Integrated, Thematic Units. Theory into Practice, 41 (4), 239-244.
Georgia Department of Education (2005). Georgia Department of Education: Office of information technology, Atlanta Georgia : Educational technology & media: Technology integration plan: Introduction, Retrieved March 24, 2005 from http://techservices.doe.k12.ga.us/edtech/TechPlan.htm
Houghton, R.S.. (2004. March 17). Communities Resolving Our Problems (C.R.O.P.): the basic idea: Bloom's Taxonomy - Overview. Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://www.wcu.edu/ceap/houghton/Learner/think/bloomsTaxonomy.html
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41 (4), 212-218.
Noble, T. (2004). Integrating the revised bloom's taxonomy with multiple intelligences: A planning tool for curriculum differentiation, Teachers College Record (Vol. 106, pp. 193): Blackwell Publishing Limited.
Omaha Public Schools, (2005) Teacher's corner: Comprehension: Bloom's taxonomy. Retrieved March 21, 2005 from http://www.ops.org/reading/blooms_taxonomy.html
Oregon State University . (2004). OSU extended campus: Course development: Instructional design -The Taxonomy Table. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/
oz-TeacherNet. (2001). oz-TeacherNet: Teachers helping teachers: Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. Retrieved March 19, 2005 from http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&ceid=29
Paul, R. W. (1985a). Bloom's taxonomy and critical thinking instruction, Educational Leadership (Vol. 42, pp. 36): Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Quotations Page (2005). The Quotations Page: Quotation Details: Quotation #3073 from Laura Moncur's Motivational Quotations, Retrieved March 20, 2005 from http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/3072.html
Schultz, L. (2005, January 25). Lynn Schultz: Old Dominion University : Bloom's taxonomy. Retrieved March 5, 2005, from http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm
South Carolina State Department of Education (2005). Myscschools.com: South Carolina State Department of Education: Taxonomy for teaching, learning, and assessing: (A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives). Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://www.myscschools.com/offices/cso/enhance/Taxonomy_Table.htm
UW Teaching Academy Short-Course. (2003). Exam question types & student competencies: How to measure learning accurately: Bloom's Taxonomy. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from http://teachingacademy.wisc.edu/archive/Assistance/course/blooms.htm
1948. Teaching by discussion. Chicago, IL, College of the University of Chicago. (With J. Axelrod et al.)
1956a. Methods in personality assessment. Glencoe, IL, Free Press. (With G.G. Stern and M.I. Stein.)
1956b. Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook I, The cognitive domain. New York, David McKay & Co. (With D. Krathwohl et al.)
1958a. Evaluation in secondary schools. New Delhi, All India Council for Secondary Education
1958b. Problem-solving processes of college students. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.
1961a. Evaluation in higher education. New Delhi, University Grants Commission.
1961b. Use of academic prediction scales for counseling and selecting college entrants. Glencoe, IL, Free Press. (With F. Peters).
1964a. Stability and change in human characteristics. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
1964b. Taxonomy of educational objectives: Volume II, The affective domain. New York, David McKay & Co. (With B. Masia and D. Krathwohl.)
1965. Compensatory education for cultural deprivation. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (With A. Davis and R. Hess.)
1966. International study of achievement in mathematics: a comparison of twelve countries. Vols I & II. New York, John Wiley & Sons. (T. Husén, Editor; B. Bloom, Associate Editor.)
1971. Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York, McGraw-Hill. (With J.T. Hastings, G.F. Madaus and others.)
1976. Human characteristics and school learning. New York, McGraw-Hill.
1980. The state of research on selected alterable variables in education. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago, MESA Publication. (With MESA Student Group.)
1980. All our children learning: a primer for parents, teachers, and other educators. New York, McGraw-Hill.
1981. Evaluation to improve learning. New York, McGraw-Hill. (With G.F. Madaus and J.T. Hastings.)
1985. Developing talent in young people. New York, Ballantine. (With L.A. Sosniak et al.)
1993. The home environment and social learning. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. (With T. Kellaghan, K. Sloane, and B. Alvarez.)
APA Citation: Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy: Original and revised.. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved <insert date>, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/
'...an unequaled wealth of information that extends the reach of black family studies and social history'
View or print this Freedmen's Bureau brochure in PDF format
In the years following the Civil War, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau) provided assistance to tens of thousands of former slaves and impoverished whites in the Southern States and the District of Columbia. The war had liberated nearly four million slaves and destroyed the region's cities, towns, and plantation-based economy. It left former slaves and many whites dislocated from their homes, facing starvation, and owning only the clothes they wore. The challenge of establishing a new social order, founded on freedom and racial equality, was enormous.
The Bureau was established in the War Department in 1865 to undertake the relief effort and the unprecedented social reconstruction that would bring freedpeople to full citizenship. It issued food and clothing, operated hospitals and temporary camps, helped locate family members, promoted education, helped freedmen legalize marriages, provided employment, supervised labor contracts, provided legal representation, investigated racial confrontations, settled freedmen on abandoned or confiscated lands, and worked with African American soldiers and sailors and their heirs to secure back pay, bounty payments, and pensions.
Invaluable Records for Genealogists and Social Historians
Several generations of a family are pictured on Smith's Plantation, South Carolina, ca. 1862. (Library of Congress)
The records left by the Freedmen's Bureau through its work between 1865 and 1872 constitute the richest and most extensive documentary source available for investigating the African American experience in the post-Civil War and Reconstruction eras. Historians have used these materials to explore government and military policies, local conditions, and interactions between freedpeople, local white populations, and Bureau officials.
These records present the genealogist and social historian with an unequaled wealth of information that extends the reach of black family studies. Documents such as local censuses, marriage records, and medical records provide freedpeople's full names and former masters; Federal censuses through 1860 listed slaves only statistically under the master's household. No name indexes are available at this time, but the documents can be rewarding, particularly since they provide full names, residences, and, often, the names of former masters and plantations.
I See You Made An Effort Pdf free. download full
The Records: A Rich Documentary Source
These previously filmed series include most records of the Bureau's headquarters in Washington, DC. They document the overall administration of the Bureau, and contain only limited information about particular individuals at the local level.
- Selected Series of Records Issued by the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1872 ( M742, 7 rolls)
- Registers and Letters Received by the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1872 ( M752, 74 rolls)
- Records of the Education Division of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1871 ( M803, 35 rolls)
Headquarters files document the overall administration and operation of the Bureau and its education division and the supervision of state offices. Records include letters, telegrams, and circular letters sent; special orders issued by Commissioner O. O. Howard; annual reports to the President; records relating to appointments; and letters received by the Commissioner. There are summary reports and communications from the state Assistant Commissioners on relief efforts, hospitals and vaccination programs, labor and land issues, legal issues, field office management, and other activities, as well as school reports, schedules of schools, and rental accounts from state superintendents of education. Primarily official and statistical, these records can contain some information on the work and experiences of particular persons at the local level.
State Records of Assistant Commissioners and Superintendents of Education
These previously filmed records should be researched for more information on activities at the local level. They provide important details about circumstances and individuals in the localities.
Records of Superintendents of Education
- Alabama ( M810, 8 rolls)
- Arkansas ( M980, 5 rolls)
- District of Columbia ( M1056, 24 rolls)
- Georgia ( M799, 28 rolls)
- Louisiana ( M1026, 12 rolls)
- North Carolina ( M844, 16 rolls)
- Tennessee ( M1000, 9 rolls)
- Texas ( M822, 18 rolls)
- Virginia ( 1053, 20 rolls)
Records of Assistant Commissioners
- Alabama ( M809, 23 rolls)
- Arkansas ( M979, 52 rolls)
- District of Columbia ( M1055, 21 rolls)
- Georgia ( M798, 36 rolls)
- Asst. Commissioner, ( M1027, 36 rolls)
- New Orleans Field Offices, ( M1483, 10 rolls)
- Mississippi ( M826, 50 rolls)
- North Carolina ( M843, 38 rolls)
- South Carolina ( M869, 44 rolls)
- Tennessee ( M999, 34 rolls)
- Texas ( M821, 32 rolls)
- Virginia ( M1048, 67 rolls)
These records contain copies of letters and annual reports sent to the Commissioner in Washington; narrative weekly and monthly summaries of problems and developments in the state; letters received from subordinates in field offices; telegrams and issuances (general orders, circulars, and special orders) received from Washington; narrative reports from subordinates on such topics as condition of the destitute, misuse of public stores, status of Bureau property, abandoned and confiscated lands, murders and outrages, and other areas of concern; form reports on schools; labor and personnel records; returns of medical officers; letters sent; and miscellaneous records relating to other topics. While most of these records are summaries and reports, many, such as collected labor contracts and letters received, can provide detailed information on individuals.
Field Office Records
- Alabama ( M1900, 34 rolls)
- Arkansas ( M1901, 23 rolls)
- District of Columbia ( M1902, 21 rolls)
- Florida ( M1869, 15 rolls)
- Georgia ( M1903, 90 rolls)
- Kentucky ( M1904, 133 rolls)
- Louisiana ( M1905, 111 rolls)
- Maryland/Delaware ( M1906, 42 rolls)
- Pre-Bureau Records, ( M1914, 5 rolls)
- Freedmen's Bureau ( M1907, 65 rolls)
- Missouri ( M1908, 24 rolls)
- North Carolina ( M1909, 78 rolls)
- South Carolina ( M1910, 106 rolls)
- Tennessee ( M1911, 89 rolls)
- Texas ( M1912, 28 rolls)
- Virginia ( M1913, 203 rolls)
It was through the local offices that subassistant commissioners, superintendents, agents, claims officers, clerks, provost marshals, disbursing officers, and medical officers provided direct assistance to and had direct contact with freedpeople.
The field office reports, letters received and sent, contracts, certificates, registers, censuses, affidavits, and other documents preserve, directly and vividly, the experiences and circumstances of the individuals involved: freedpeople, Bureau officers, landowners and employers, and others. They contain desperate pleas for food, clothing, and medical care from rural communities; freedpeoples' testimonies about delinquent employers, continued use of forced labor and apprenticeship, violence, and restrictions due to the new state-legislated and repressive 'black codes'; petitions for new schools, legal aid in courts, and protection from violence; applications for land; and marriage certificates. These records are filled with names and personal information, whether in marriage certificates, labor contracts, hospital records, complaints, relief rolls, or trial summaries. Further, many of these records preserve firsthand descriptions of the harsh and racially divisive conditions in which these named individuals struggled to establish families, train and educate themselves, and live in self-sufficiency and freedom.
- Marriage Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Washington Headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1861-1869 ( M1875, 5 rolls)
This microfilm series contains hundreds of marriage records of newly liberated African Americans in the post-Civil War era collected from 1861 through 1869 first by the Union Army and then the Freedmen's Bureau in its field offices in the Southern States and the District of Columbia, and sent to the Washington, DC, headquarters. Record types include unbound marriage certificates, marriage licenses, monthly reports of marriages, and other proofs of marriages. Record type and quantity varies with each state.
Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General
- Records of the Field Offices of the Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1872-1878
( M2029, 58 rolls).
The records of the Freedmen's Branch of the Adjutant General's Office (1872-78) contain valuable genealogical information on black soldiers and sailors found in documents and letters they submitted for bounty, pension, arrears of pay, commutation of rations, and prize money. The branch continued the work of the Freedmen's Bureau in receiving, passing upon, and paying military claims. Other documents include letters sent, lists and registers of claimants, reports of persons and articles hired, returns of public property, and affidavits. The records can be useful when used in conjunction with military service and pension records. The records are from field offices in Charleston, SC; Fort Johnston, NC; Louisville, KY; Fort Macon, NC; Fort Leavenworth, KS; Fort Monroe, VA; Memphis, TN; Nashville, TN; Natchez, MS; New Orleans, LA; St. Louis, MO; Savannah, GA; and Vicksburg, MS.
Where to View Microfilm
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Copies of field office records microfilms are available for viewing at the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, and at each of the regional archives.
How to Order Microfilm Rolls
Freedpeople working at the James Hopkinson plantation at Edisto Island, South Carolina. (NARA 64-CN-8971)
- Online: Go to the National Archives online ordering.
- Telephone: Credit card orders call toll free 1-866-272-6272 (301-837-2000 in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area), 8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. EST. Visa, MasterCard, American Express, and Discover are accepted.
- Fax: Fax your order to 301-837-3191.
- Mail: Mail checks or money orders to the National Archives Trust Fund, P.O. Box 100793, Atlanta, GA 30384-0793. Include daytime telephone number with order.
Please identify the microfilm publication number (e.g., M1875) and the specific roll number(s) you are interested in.
Black-and-white microfilm is $125 per roll for domestic orders and $135 for foreign orders; shipping and handling fees are included.
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For information about specific rolls
View introductions, listings of roll contents, and descriptions of the record series for all Freedmen's Bureau microfilm:
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- through the National Archives online ordering
- through links on this web page to the descriptive pamphlets for microfilm publications
- at the start of each microfilm roll
- in a free printed descriptive pamphlet available for each series by calling toll free 1-866-272-6272.
By e-mail at: http://www.archives.gov/contact/