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75 the sort of compression and strain which may set Herein, according to Prof. up arthritic processes. PUTTI, lies the explanation of the frequency of nervous involvement in this region. We are not aware Ne quid nimis.' of any extensive X ray examination of such cases in this country which would throw light on the Bologna THE 'CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST.' findings, but marked changes have often been found on of WE the muscular and fibrous tissue offer our congratulation to the Chemist and attached palpation to the spine long before any bony change has become Druggist on the production of a special number (June 25th, 1927) which can be described as a triumph apparent on the X ray screen. In another region of of trade journalism. Not even in the United States the spinal column, Dr. HENRI FoRESTIER, of Aix-les- of America, where they do these things so well, do Bains, recalls attention to the nodules and thickenings, they produce anything better than this ; and when frequently found in the neighbourhood of the cervical we consider that this large volume-too large to be vertebrae in patients complaining of chronic headache sent through the post-was delivered to its suband neuralgic pains, described many years ago by scribers at almost the usual time on the ordinary of publication, and this without impairing the ,Prof. R. STOCKMAN, of Edinburgh. It should prove day of its market we think the ediup-to-dateness possible by some special method of screening to torial staff, the printers andnews, publishers have done demonstrate changes such as these on the radiogram. of which they can be justly proud. The Spondylitis, when clearly marked by bony change something Chemist and Drugg’ist was, we believe, one of the visible on the screen, is already a late stage in the if not the first, trade paper to be produced in condition. Whatever may be its earliest manifestation first, this country ; there were, of course, scientific and -and much more study of the subject is required journals in being a considerable time before a definite opinion can be given-the work at our Cannon-street contemporary issued its the Bologna Institute is instructive in explaining before as for instance (not to mention ourhow vertebral abnormality may cause pressure on first number, the Pharmaceutical Journal, which at that selves) But the nerves in the intervertebral foramina. if our recollection is right, was devoted almost question still remains, Is this pressure sufficient in time, to the scientific side of pharmacy. To the entirely itself to produce sciatica ? Prof. PUTTI seems to Chemist and Druggist, however, belongs the honour hold that the congenital abnormality produces of being a pioneer of trade journalism. We underarthritis which in turn leads to sciatic pain, but he does not make it quite clear whether the congenital stand that this special number synchronises with the retirement from the editorial chair of Mr. S. W. abnormality may be present without giving rise to Woolley, who has been editor of the Chemist and arthritis. Clinicians in this country are familiar for some ten years ; in this his final contrienough with cases of spinal arthritis in which the Druggist bution to the chemists’ library he has certainly left of evidence spondylitis is convincing but in which no behind him a monument. Mr. Woolley has, we pain is referred to the endings of the sciatic nerve. believe, for many years been a student of times past, It seems likely that in addition to the congenital and from time to time has given his readers the abnormality which Prof. PUTTI demonstrates so benefit of his searches in old book shops and libraries clearly there is a superadded factor of infection and museums both at home and in continental somewhere in the body, for there is evidence that countries. Evidence of the patience and diligence removal of a chronic source of infection may cure with which he has pursued his hobby is to be found sciatica even though the spinal arthritis persists. In in some of the articles in his last special number. For recalcitrant cases, however, the publication of Prof. there is an historical sketch running to PUTTI’S experience should certainly lead to a trial instance, some 12 pages, the illustrations, as well of course as of the treatment which he recommends-namely, the text, in which will no doubt be preserved by activehypersemia with mobilisation of the lumbar every chemist who receives a copy of the paper. spine. There are, for example, reproduced in colours four vellum leaves from the beautiful MS. prepared at FELLOWSHIP OF MEDICINE AND POST-GRADUATE Constantinople in 512 A.D. for Juliana Anicia, MEDICAL ASSOCIATION.-Dr. A. C. Roxburgh will give a daughter of the Emperor Flavius Anicius Olybrius. special demonstration at the In-Patient Department of Then, again, the Arabesque border on the first page St. John’s Hospital for Diseases of the Skin (262, Uxbridge- of the article is from a of the Galen MS. at road, London, W. 14), on July 12th, at 2.30 P.M. On July Dresden. Indeed, the page abounds with paper reproa 5 will on at Mr. G. Viner lecture 15th, P.M., give Epiphora at the Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital; and on ductions of priceless frontispieces : volumes in the the same date Mr. Archer Ryland will demonstrate at the Vatican Library, the British Museum, the National Central London Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital at 10 A.M. Library at Turin, and so on have been utilised by the ’Those desirous of attending this latter demonstration are block maker in a most skilful way. This is only asked to notify the hospital-Museum 1539. All these to mention one section of the number; equally demonstrations are free to members of the medical proof perusal are the illustrated article on the fession. From July llth to 16th the St. Mark’s Hospital worthy used by the ancient druggists and the metal utensils staff will undertake a special course occupying six afternoons and three mornings, and including lectures, operations, entertaining, not to say amusing, anecdotes about X ray and pathological demonstrations. Also beginning quacks of old.
Annotations. '
llth is a two weeks’ vacation course at the Prince of Wales’s General Hospital, Tottenham, which will include instruction in medicine, surgery, and the specialties. The formal lectures at 4.30 are open to members of the Fellowship of Medicine. A four weeks’ course in neurology at the West End Hospital started on July 4th, consisting of lecture-demonstrations at 5 P.M. daily. From July 13th to 30th a course in infectious fevers will be held at the Park Hospital, Hither Green, S.E. Instruction will be given on Wednesdays at 2.30 P.M., and on Saturdays at 11 A.lBI. Two special courses will take place in August-one on Diseases of Infants at the Infants Hospital, from August 8th to 20th, and one on Medicine, Surgery, and the Specialties, at the Queen Mary’s Hospital, from August 29th to Sept. 10th. A general course of work. for which a separate programme is issued, is also provided by the Fellowship at the associated hospitals. Copies of all syllabuses and of the Post-Graduate Medical Journal are obtainable from the Fellowship of .:Medicine, 1, Wimpole-street, London, W. on
INHERITANCE FACTOR IN TUBERCULOSIS. THE detailed schedules of over 4000 consecutive patients who first attended the tuberculosis institutions in the City of Belfast from 1914 to 1917 are the material from which Dr. Percy Stocks, inspired by Earl Pearson, has compiled a studyof the inheritance factor in tuberculosis. Dr. Stocks has deduced rates of active tuberculosis among brothers and sisters of those tuberculous patients by sex and age-groups ; the ages of non-tuberculous brothers THE
1 Fresh Evidence
i I
the Inheritance Factor in Tuberculosis.
By Percy Stocks, M.D., Medical Officer, Galton Laboratory, University of London. From Annals of Eugenics, vol. ii., Parts 1 and 2, April, 1927. Cambridge University Press.
I and one on the development of tuberculosis. In the not always available, and for assumed that the proportionate age remaining 14 cases the results obtained were as distribution of brothers and sisters was the same as follows. At the end of the treatment, which lasted that of the patients themselves. The next step was about a month, there was an average gain of weight to estimate comparable rates for the general population of 2’00 kg. A month after the termination of treatin Belfast. Here, again, certain assumptions had to be ment an average increase of 2’07 kg. was maintained; made to fill in gaps in the The resulting smoothed curves showed that of plague in the Union of South Africa, though it the total rate of onslaught was greatest in the first must have been frequently introduced from India it does not appear to have spread. During the South seven years of life in both sexes, and from 15-25 in African War, however, plague found its way to the and to a extent from 20-30 in males. less females, In the first of these periods the mortality curves do territory now incorporated in the Union from the not show a corresponding steepness. Dr. Stocks Portuguese port of Lourenco Marques, and spread In February, 1901, a plague epizootic estimated for every age the correlation between the inland. incidence in pairs of brothers and sisters, obtaining occurred in Cape Town docks where large stores of at all ages after 10 a fraternal correlation of the grain had accumulated, and since this time the disease order 0-25 to 0-3. During the first 10 years of life the has become endemic and given rise to considerable association was higher. anxiety. These and other historical details are As to the relative parts played by heredity and recorded in a recent publication of the South African environment, the author lays more stress on the Institute of Medical Research (No. XX., Vol. III., former than the latter, as he considers that if environ- pp. 85-256) on the Plague Problem in South Africa by ment acted alone there would be a consistent tendency Dr. J. Alexander Mitchell, Secretary for Public Health (which does not appear in the results) for these correla- and Chief Medical Health Officer for the Union of tion to decrease regularly after 10 years of age. South Africa, Dr. J. H. Harvey Pirie, and Dr. A. He points out, however, that the correlation in the Ingram, who are attached to the Institute respectively During first ten years of life is rather higher than would be as pathologist and medical entomologist. years 191G-20 the sporadic prevalence of plague expected from heredity alone, and suggests that i the this may be due either to direct infection among I in the midland districts of the Cape, in localities where young children or a common source of infection, or no direct contact with persons infected could be traced, the authorities. In 1920, from the study of possibly to the tendency for the tuberculosis officer puzzled all available information, it was found that the disa to have all the brothers and sisters of young tuberculous child examined, those of school age being more tribution of the outbreaks corresponded with areas stretches in which the gerbille (Tatera easily accessible than the older ones. It is hard to or sandy was lobengulae) especially prevalent. Suspicion was the the this is to credit rather feeling-and escape aroused that the multifarious rodent fauna therefore if than the disparagement of the author-that the reader begins with doubts he will end with doubts, of the veldt was acting as a reservoir of plague infecand if he begins with certainties he will end with the tion. Soon, in February, 1921, convincing proof was obtained in the death of a farmer near Bothaville, same certainties. and in the vicinity an extensive plague epizootic in the INSULIN IN THE TREATMENT OF gerbilles and multimammate mice was thereby disclosed. Excavation of the burrows and the discovery of MALNUTRITION. numbers of recently dead and dying mice left no doubt CERTAIN American observers have used insulin on this point. Subsequently more abundant proof was in marasmic infants and in debilitated and emaciated obtained and other rodents, such as the large-eared adults and those convalescent from various ailments mouse, the striped mouse, and ground squirrel were with gratifying results. Recently, Prof. E. Trocello, found naturally infected. Public attention was of Rome, has described the results of 18 cases in a riveted on this subject during the extensive epidemic paper read at the Medical Congress at Padua last of plague in the Orange Free State in 1923-24. The year, which has recently been published.1 It should total number of cases was 329 with 204 deaths; be recalled that Falta, of Vienna, in July, 1925, drew all except six of these cases occurred on farms, and attention to the results obtained by insulin in three native herd boys were most frequently attacked. emaciated subjects in whom treatment by rest and In most instances infection was traceable to veldt superalimentation had failed. A rapid and enormous rodents and about 12 per cent. of cases were pneumonic increase of weight occurred. The method adopted by in type. A virulent rodent epizootic preceded and Dr. Trocello is as follows. Every day, with the the epidemic. In some localities the accompanied exception of Sunday, an injection of insulin is given carcasses of veldt rodents could be collected by the one hour before lunch and dinner simultaneously barrow-full, and it is estimated that 90 per cent. ofwith a drink containing 50 g. of sugar. The dose these creatures had died. The larger rodents, such as administered was 10 to 25 units in accordance with the the karoo-rat, black rat, house mouse,. hare, spring tolerance of the patient, anyhypoglycsemic disturbance and mongoose were also victims. Fortunately forbeing watched for. Out of the 18 young women treated the prevention of the spread of plague, the veldt the insulin was discontinued in four cases, one for rodents are such shy animals that they seldom travel hypoglycaemic disturbance, two owing to slight fever, by rail and that, with the exception of the multi1 Rassegna di Clinica, Terapia e Scienze Affini., xxvi., March mammate mouse, they rarely enter the dwellings of evidence of the reimportation of plagueman ; April, 1927.
and sisters over
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