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Medically reviewed by Carmen Fookes, BPharm. Last updated on Feb 5, 2019.

Other names: MAOIs

Mao’s writing, he said, “offers spiritual relief to small town youth like me.” Chinese technology workers are often expected to work 9 a.m. Six days a week, a practice so common. Fox News guest slammed over picture of Mao in background during live appearance. A Fox News guest drew criticism Thursday after a photo of Chinese dictator Mao Zedong was spotted in the background. Mao Zedong, aka Chairman Mao, founded the People's Republic of China in 1949 and ruled the country with an iron fist until his death in 1976. Mao Zedong was an unflinching dictator responsible for the deaths of tens of millions of his people — and yet millions in China still flock to Beijing to visit his grave, and billions. Mao (stylized as MAO) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Rumiko Takahashi.It has been serialized in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday magazine since May 2019, with its chapters collected in eight tankōbon volumes as of March 2021. Mao Zedong (1893-1976, Wade-Giles: Mao Tse-tung) was a Chinese communist, military commander, strategist, political philosopher and party leader. He became the most significant leader and figurehead of the Chinese Revolution. Rising from humble origins, Mao was a minor regional figure in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) until the 1930s.

What are Monoamine oxidase inhibitors?

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (also called MAO inhibitors or MAOIs) block the actions of monoamine oxidase enzymes.

Monoamine oxidase enzymes are responsible for breaking down neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the brain. Low levels of these three neurotransmitters have been linked with depression and anxiety. By blocking the effects of monoamine oxidase enzymes, MAOIs increase the concentration of these three neurotransmitters and are useful at relieving symptoms associated with depression, such as sadness or anxiety.

MAOIs are typically only used when other antidepressants have proven ineffective, because they have a higher risk of drug interactions than standard antidepressants and can also interact with certain types of food such as aged cheeses and cured meats. They also tend to have more side effects than standard antidepressants and may cause a withdrawal syndrome on discontinuation.

What are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors used for?

MAOIs may be used to treat the symptoms of depression, such as sadness, anxiety, or worry, that have not responded to other antidepressants. They should not be used to treat severe depression or bipolar disorder.

There are some other drugs that also inhibit monoamine oxidase enzymes (in addition to having other properties), but are not used for the treatment of depression. These drugs should not be taken within 14 days of another MAOI nor with food or beverages that have a high tyramine content. Some resources may not list these drugs as MAOIs even though they inhibit monoamine oxidase enzymes. Examples include:

(Movie
  • Linezolid (Zyvox): an antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics
  • Methylene blue (Provayblue): a potent MAOI that is used to treat drug-induced methemoglobinemia (a condition where an inefficient form of hemoglobin [methemoglobin] is present in large quantities in the blood)
  • Procarbazine (Matulane): Used in addition to other medications to treat Hodgkin’s disease
  • Rasagiline (Azilect): Used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
  • Selegiline (Eldepryl, Zelapar): May be used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in addition to other medications.

What are the differences between Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors?

All three MAOIs (isocarboxazid, phenelzine and tranylcypromine), available in the U.S. and used for the treatment of depression, are irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. Irreversible means that the body must regenerate new monoamine oxidase enzymes to resume previous levels of enzymatic activity. This can take weeks, which means that the effects of MAOIs persist long after the drugs have been cleared from the body.

Phenelzine may be more likely to cause sedation and weight gain than isocarboxazid or tranylcypromine.

Generic name Brand name examples
isocarboxazidMarplan
phenelzineNardil
tranylcypromineParnate

Are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors safe?

When taken at the recommended dosage, MAOIs are considered safe. However, they are potentially fatal in overdose and have also been associated with a few serious, potentially fatal, side effects such as:

  • Very severe drug interactions. Since the effects of MAOIs persist for several weeks after the last dose is taken, at least a 14-day washout period is required before starting any other type of antidepressant or medicine that also increases levels of serotonin or other chemical neurotransmitters
  • Very severe food interactions. Extremely high blood pressure, which could lead to a fatal stroke, may result if foods high in tyramine such as aged cheeses, fermented meats, Fava or broad beans, beer, marmite, or soy sauce, are consumed while taking MAOIs
  • An increase in suicidal thoughts and behaviors, particularly in children and young adults under the age of 25 years. This is most likely to occur when starting therapy
  • Serotonin syndrome, usually when MAOIs are taken in conjunction with other medicines or supplements that also increase serotonin, or when taken at high dosages. Symptoms include confusion, restlessness, muscle jerking, and excessive sweating
  • Rarely, rapid but transient increases in blood pressure within 30 minutes to two hours of MAOI ingestion.

MAOIs should not be given to people with heart disease or high blood pressure, or to people with pheochromocytoma. They should be discontinued 10 days prior to elective surgery.

What are the side effects of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors?

One of the more common side effects experienced when initiating treatment with MAOIs is low blood pressure when moving from a sitting to a standing position (called orthostatic hypotension). In most people this can be managed by slowly increasing the dosage of the medication, giving split doses, and increasing fluid intake.

Other common side effects when starting therapy include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea.

Insomnia may be helped by not giving doses too late in the evening.

Side effects that tend to occur with regular, long-term therapy include:

  • Edema (fluid retention)
  • Muscle pains
  • Myoclonus (spasmodic, jerky, muscle contractions)
  • Paraesthesias (abnormal sensations or prickling in the nerves)
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Weight gain.
Mao

Paraesthesias may be helped by pyridoxine supplementation.

For a complete list of side effects, please refer to the individual drug monographs.

List of Monoamine oxidase inhibitors:

Tie-In)
Drug NameAvg. RatingReviews
Nardil(Pro)
Generic name:phenelzine
108 reviews
Parnate(Pro)
Generic name:tranylcypromine
83 reviews
Emsam(Pro)
Generic name:selegiline
43 reviews
Marplan(Pro)
Generic name:isocarboxazid
6 reviews
Zelapar(Pro)
Generic name:selegiline
2 reviews
Eldepryl(Pro)
Generic name:selegiline
1 review
For ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective).

See Also

Medical conditions associated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors:

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Feb 2nd, 2010 2 min read

Can you name the greatest mass murderer of the 20th century? No, it wasn’t Hitler or Stalin. It was Mao Zedong.

According to the authoritative “Black Book of Communism,” an estimated 65 million Chinese died as a result of Mao’s repeated, merciless attempts to create a new “socialist” China. Anyone who got in his way was done away with -- by execution, imprisonment or forced famine.

For Mao, the No. 1 enemy was the intellectual. The so-called Great Helmsman reveled in his blood-letting, boasting, “What’s so unusual about Emperor Shih Huang of the China Dynasty? He had buried alive 460 scholars only, but we have buried alive 46,000 scholars.” Mao was referring to a major “accomplishment” of the Great Cultural Revolution, which from 1966-1976 transformed China into a great House of Fear.

The most inhumane example of Mao’s contempt for human life came when he ordered the collectivization of China’s agriculture under the ironic slogan, the “Great Leap Forward.” A deadly combination of lies about grain production, disastrous farming methods (profitable tea plantations, for example, were turned into rice fields), and misdistribution of food produced the worse famine in human history.

Deaths from hunger reached more than 50 percent in some Chinese villages. The total number of dead from 1959 to 1961 was between 30 million and 40 million -- the population of California.

Rounding up enemies

Mao Inhibitors

Only five years later, when he sensed that revolutionary fervor in China was waning, Mao proclaimed the Cultural Revolution. Gangs of Red Guards -- young men and women between 14 and 21 -- roamed the cities targeting revisionists and other enemies of the state, especially teachers.

Professors were dressed in grotesque clothes and dunce caps, their faces smeared with ink. They were then forced to get down on all fours and bark like dogs. Some were beaten to death, some even eaten -- all for the promulgation of Maoism. A reluctant Mao finally called in the Red Army to put down the marauding Red Guards when they began attacking Communist Party members, but not before 1 million Chinese died.

All the while, Mao kept expanding the laogai, a system of 1,000 forced labor camps throughout China. Harry Wu, who spent 19 years in labor camps, has estimated that from the 1950s through the 1980s, 50 million Chinese passed through the Chinese version of the Soviet gulag. Twenty million died as a result of the primitive living conditions and 14-hour work days.

Such calculated cruelty exemplified his Al Capone philosophy: “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.”

And yet Mao Zedong remains the most honored figure in the Chinese Communist Party. At one end of historic Tiananmen Square is Mao’s mausoleum, visited daily by large, respectful crowds. At the other end of the square is a giant portrait of Mao above the entrance to the Forbidden City, the favorite site of visitors, Chinese and foreign.

Read Mao Manga

Repression continues

In the spirit of Mao, China’s present rulers continue to oppress intellectuals and other dissidents such as human-rights activist Liu Xiaobo. He was sentenced last month to 11 years in prison for “inciting subversion of state power.” His offense: signing Charter 08, which calls on the government to respect basic civil and human rights within a democratic framework. .

China presents itself as a vast market for U.S. companies and investors. But some U.S. companies are taking a second look at doing business in a country which considers Mao Zedong its patron saint. Google has said it is reconsidering its operations in China after discovering a sophisticated cyber attack on its e-mail which the government must have initiated or approved.

Mao's Last Dancer (Movie Tie-In) PDF Free Download

Google has revealed what many in the Internet world have known for some time -- China routinely hacks into U.S. and Western Web sites for national security and other valuable information. Mao would have enthusiastically applauded this intellectual rape.

Mao Takeaway

I wonder: would President Obama be so ready to kowtow to China if in the middle of Beijing there was a mausoleum of Hitler and, hanging from the gate to the Forbidden City, a giant swastika?

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First Appeared in Vindy.com